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ASTM Steels, Weld Tips

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written by Ed Craig www.welreality.com.



Welding and steels info on ASTM - A36 TO A391.
Carbon Low Alloy Steels, Bar, Plate, Chain Tubes Pipe.



As changes are frequent, please ensure you refresh before reading.


ALL PROCESS - CONSUMABLES RECOMMENDATIONS MADE AT THIS SITE REQUIRE
WELD QUALIFICATION
BEFORE THE WELDS ARE APPROVED.

Note: When you see high tensile weld electrodes required, this is usually an indication that pre heat, interpass and post heat treatment is required for the welds.


IF YOU AR
E WELDING TUBES OR PIPES MAKE
SURE YOU VISIT THE ASTM PIPE WELDING SECTION

 

If welding a carbon or low alloy steels and you don't know what the composition is or what the weld consumable should be, give consideration to the following.

  • If the metal is thicker than 1/4 - 6 mm, preheat to 150F.
  • Use either an E7018 stick electrode, an 0.035 or 0.045 E70S-3-6 MIG wire, or for all position welds an E71T-1 electrode wire.
  • For MIG welding use an argon 10 to 20% CO2 mix.
  • For gas shielded flux cored use a gas mix with 20 to 25% CO2.
  • Ensure mill scale in weld area is removed and the plate is always at a temperature >60F.
  • Keep single pass fillet welds < 1/4 - < 6mm.
  • Use stringer, do not weave unless necessary.
  • For multi-pass welds. use inter-pass temp control. Ensure the inter-pass temp does not exceed 300 F.
  • If possible do destructive test of a weld sample.
  • If possible have the hardness and grain size checked after welding.
  • If cracks occur in the HAZ double the pre-heat.

 

SMAW and GMAW Mechanical Strength
E6010 Minimum Yield 50,000 psi Minimum Tensile 62,000 psi.
E6011 Minimum Yield 50,000 psi Minimum Tensile 62,000 psi.
E7010 Minimum Yield 60,000 psi Minimum Tensile 72,000 psi.
E7018 Minimum Yield 60,000 psi Minimum Tensile 72,000 psi.



MIG E70S-3-6 Minimum Yield 60,000 psi Minimum Tensile 72,000 psi.



When welding low and medium carbon steels, the 70XX electrodes and E70S-3-6 MIG wires and E7XT-X flux cored electrodes can be used. When welding low alloy 1 1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo and 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo with up to 0.05% max carbon, typically 8018-B2L / 9018-B3L (L = low carbon) can be used. When welding higher strength alloys or when tempering and quenching are required to attain the higher strengths the higher carbon 8018 B2 and 9018 B3 electrodes are utilized.


The "yield strength", the stress that can be applied to a base metal or weld without permanent deformation of the metal.

The "tensile strength", "the ultimate tensile strength" is the maximum tensile strength that the metal or weld can with stand before failure occurs.


Fine-grained steels are prone to cold cracking due to hydrogen absorption. They should be preheated slightly and welded with a relatively low specific energy, to reduce the heat-affected zone. Preheating: in function of steel, generally 100°C (max. 200°C) Post-weld treatment: usually not necessary

Austenitic manganese steels with a manganese content of 14% (Hadfield steels) have a tendency to form brittle precipitates in the form of carbides.
It is essential to weld them without preheating, even with additional cooling, and to keep the specific heat input low. Preheating: none (cooling may be used if needed

Unalloyed steels are prone to cold cracking. In many cases preheating is required to ensure good weldability. Preheating: < 0.2C %: without preheating (up to 30 mm thickness) or 100°C against humidity

C: 0.2 to 0.5 %:preheating temperature 100 to 300°C

C > 0.5 %: preheating temperature 300 to 350°C.Possible post-weld treatments, stress relieving, normalising

Low alloy steels are prone to cold cracking. In many cases preheating is required to lower hydrogen potential and ensure good weldability.


 




Mechanical Strength of Gas Shielded Flux Cored Electrodes from the ANSI/AWS A5.29. 1198 Specification Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

 

AWS Classification
Tensile ksi
Tensile MPa
Yield ksi
Yield Mpa
E6XTX-X-XM
60 - 80
410 - 550
50
340
E7XTX-X-XM
70 - 90
480 - 620
58
400
E8XTX-X-XM
80 - 100
550 - 690
68
470
E9XTX-X-XM
90 - 110
620 - 760
78
540
E10XTX-K9-K9M
SEE SPEC
 
88
610
(M) means an argon mix req,  75 to 80 argon balance CO2
All DCEP
 E71T-1
Second number
1 = all position
E70T-1
Second number
0 = flat and horizontal
 


Brittleness:The ease at which the weld or metal will break or crack without appreciable deformation. The ease at which the weld or metal will break or crack without appreciable deformation. The ease at which the weld or metal will break or crack without appreciable deformation. When a metal gets harder it becomes more brittle. Preheat, inter-pass temp controls and post heat all are designed to reduce the potential for brittleness.


Hardness test. The hardness tester forces a small sphere (Brinell, HB), a diamond pyramid (Vickers, HV) or a cone (Rockwell C, HRC) into the surface of a metallic material at a specific load. The resulting indentation is then measured.


 

 

 

Irresespective of what the specifications stipulate, many manufactures of parts and equipment containing ASTM steels do not use the recommended pre or post-heat treatments, especially when multi-pass welds are required

The requirements for weld heat treatment is greatly influenced by many factors, the application, the governing specifications or codes, the plate condition, the plate thickness, the weld consumables the weld procedures, the weld sizes and amount of welds required.

In many cases the manufacturer that uses ASTM steels will find that it's not necessary for the weld to match the mechanical properties of the steel, and will therefore typically utilize low hydrogen, highly ductile E7018 /E70S-3-6 / E71T-1 electrodes.

When using the low hydrogen electrodes, the pre and post heat treatment recommendations are frequently eliminated, however from a weld quality perspective always ensure that the weld locations are dry, the metal is over 60F, and that rust and mill scale is removed from the weld area. Also even when heat treatment is not used its frequently beneficial to not allow the multi-pass inter-pass weld temperatures to exceed 200F

If you ignore the heat treat requirements as recommended by the metal specifications ensure you use low hydrogen electrodes then,

(a) Establish the welding procedure.
(b) Qualify the weld and HAZ properties. Ensure the after weld and HAZ properties are compatible with the steel specifications, ref grain size, hardness and strength.


PRE HEAT IN THE FOLLOWING CHARTS ALSO APPLIES
TO MINIMUM INTER-PASS TEMPERATURE.






Alloy steels always require weld consideration. Compare the low alloy steels chemistry and mechanicals with a standard A36 steel. Remember this is only a guide, weld responsibility starts with the weld decision maker verifying the consumables and heat treat and test recommendations.

 

STRESS RELIEVING (SR) BASIC GUIDELINES:

    • STRESS RELIEF - CONTROLLED HEATING & COOLING TO REDUCE STRESS.
    • STRESS RELIEF MACHINED PARTS FOR DIMENSIONAL STABILITY.
    • STRESS RELIEF SLOW HEATING AND COOLING REQUIRED
    • CONFIRM WITH CODE SPECIFICAIONS FOR STRESS RELIEF REQUIREMENTS.




TYPICAL STRESS RELIEF SOAK TIME
ONE HOUR PER INCH OF THICKNESS

SR HEAT & COOL RATE PER HOUR 400oF 204oC DIVIDE THICKER PART
PARTS OF DIFFERENT THICKNESSES
SR MAX TEMP DIFFERENCE 75oF 24oC
STRESS RELIEF CARBON STEELS 1100oF 593oC
TO 1250oF 677oC
STRESS RELIEF CARBON 0.5% Mo
1100oF 593oC TO 1250oF 677oC
SR 1% CHROME 0.5% Mo
1150oF 621oC TO 1325oF 718oC
SR 1.25 % CHROME 0.5% Mo
1150oF 621oC TO 1325oF 718oC
SR 2% CHROME 0.5% Mo
1150oF 621oC TO 1325oF 718oC
SR 2.25 % CHROME 1% Mo
1200oF 649oC TO 1375oF 746oC
SR 5% CHROME 0.5% Mo
1200oF 649oC TO 1375oF 746oC
SR 7% CHROME 0.5% Mo
1300oF 704oC TO 1400oF 760oC
SR 9% CHROME 1% Mo
1300oF 704oC TO 1400oF 760oC
SR 12% CHROME 410 STEEL
1550oF 843oC TO 1600oF 871oC
SR 16% CHROME 430 STEEL
1400oF 760oC TO 1500oF 815oC
SR 9% NICKEL
1025oF 552oC TO 1085oF 585oC
FOR 300 SERIES
STAINLESS SR WILL
RESULT IN CARBIDE PRECIPITATION
WITH LOW CARBON 300 SERIES
MAX SR 1050oF 566oC
SR 400 SERIES CLAD STAINLESS
1100oF 593oC TO 1350oF 732oC
SR CLAD MONEL INCONEL Cu NICKEL
1150oF 621oC TO 1200oF 649oC
STRESS RELIEF MAGNESIUM AZ31B 0
500oF 260oC 15 MIN
STRESS RELIEF MAGNESIUM AZ31B
H24 300oF 149oC 60 MIN

HK31A H24 550oF 288oC 30 MIN

HM21A T8-T81 700oF 371oC 30 MIN

 

MAGNESIUM WITH MORE THAN 1.5%
ALUMINUM STRESS RELIEF
MAGNESIUM CAST ALLOYS AM100A
500oF 260oC 60 MIN
AZ-63A 81A 91C & 92A
500oF 260oC 60 MIN
 




Metric Conversion 1000 psi = ksi x 6.894 = MPa

Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
Description
Preheat Postheat 
UNS
Chemistry
weld data
ASTM A3  carbon stl  mig S3-S6
ASTM A27  carbon stl  mig S3-S6
ASTM
A36
>36
>248
58 - 80
400/551
Common low carbon structural steel
CSA grades in compliance 260W 260WT 300W
<0.25carb
>25mm
100F. >50mm 200F
>0.26carb
13-25mm
50F. >25mm 175F
K02600
Carb 0.25/0.29
Mn 0.6/1.2
Si 0.15/0.4
E60XX
E70XX
E70S-X
E71T-1
ASTM
A 53

PIPEWELD MIG S3 - S6
A 82 Reinforcement wireWELD MIG S3 - S6
ASTM
A105
  
High temp fittings
 
 
E70XX
E70S-X
E71T-1
ASTM
A108
  
Corresponds to AISI specs
 
 
E60XX
E70XX
E70S-X
E71T-1

ASTM
109

 

  Carbon stl strip  WELD MIG S3 - S6
ASTM
A113
  
Railway stock
 
 
E60XX
E70XX
E70S-X
E71T-1
A128  Casting
Aust Mn
   
ASTM
A131
Grades
A-B-CS
D-DS-E
AH32-
DH32
EH32
AH36
DH36
EH36
Grade
a/b/cs
d/ds/e
>34
Grade
ah32/
dh32
eh32
>46
Grade
ah36/
dh36
eh36
>51
Grade
a/b/cs
d/ds/e
58 - 71
Grade
ah32/
dh32
eh32
>68 - 85
Grade
ah36/
dh36
eh36
>71- 90
Structural steel for ships Canadian CSA G40.21 
Grade A = 33G
Grade B = 33W
Preheat CS/D/E >25mm 100F
Preheat ah/eh/dh
32-36 >13mm 50F >25mm 100F
K02300
Carb
0.16/0.26
Mn0.7/1.5
Si0.1/0.5

AH/DH/EH
Ni0.4
Cr0.25
Mo0.8
Cu0.35

Grades a-e
E70XX
E70S-X
E71T-1

Grades ah/dh/eh
32-36
E8018-B2
E80T5-B2
ASTM
134
  Carbon stl pipe  WELD MIG
S3 - S6

ASTM
135

  Carbon stl pipe  WELD MIG
S3 - S6
ASTM
139
  Carbon stl pipe  WELD MIG
S3 - S6
ASTM
A148
Grades 40/50/60
/80/85/90
95/105
120
  
Structural castings
 
 
Grades
40/50/80
E8018-C3
Grades
60/90
E8018-B2
Grades
85/95/10/
120
E11018-M

 

Many steel types and their grades go back for 30 to 50 years. Today many grades are obsolete. Its helpful to include these grades as many rebuilds and repairs deal with the older grades. By the way if you don't see a chemistry range you are typically seeing the maximum alloy content.

 

Fatigue: The ability of a metal or weld to withstand repeated loads. Fatigue failures occur at stress levels less than the metal or weld yield strength. Some things that can influence fatigue failure:



  • Excess weld profiles.
  • Welds which cause undercut.
  • FCAW or SMAW slag inclusions.
  • Lack of weld penetration.
  • Excess weld heat, typically from multi-pass welds without inter-pass temp controls.
  • Items to a part that adds restraint while welding.
  • Items added to a part that can concentrate stresses in a specific location.
  • Incorrect selection of filler metal, weld too weak or weld too strong.




Steels

 Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
Description Preheat 
 Postheat
UNSChemistry
weld data
ASTM
A161
  Carbon stl tubes   WELD
MIG S3 - S6
ASTM
A167
  AUSTENITIC STAINLESS    
A176   STAINLESS    
A177   STAINLESS   308-308L
A178   Carbon stl tubes   70S-3-6
A179   Carbon stl tubes   70s-3-6
ASTM
A181
Grades
1 - 2
  ForgingsPreheat
>25MM 100f
>50mm 200F
 Carb 0.35
Mn0.9
Si 0.35
Grade 1-2
E70XX
E70S-X
E71T-1
ASTM
A182
Grades F1/F2/
F11/F12
F22/F22A
  High Temp
fittings
Preheat all grades except F1 at 
>25mm 100F 50mm 200F

Grade F1
<13mm 100F <25mm 200F >25mm 300F

Post heat req 1250F
 
F2 Carb 0.21
Mn0.3/0.8
Si 0.1/0.6
Cu 0.5/0.8
Grade
F1
E70XX
E70S-X
E71T-1

GRADE F2
F11/F12 
E8018-B2

grade
F22/F22A
E9018-B3
ASTM 184   Reinforcement bar carbon stl low alloy  E8018-G - W
100 - 200F
ASTM
185
  Reinforcement bar low alloy  E8018-G-W
100 - 200F
ASTM
192
  Tubes carbon stl  E70S-3-6
100 - 200F
ASTM
193
  Bolting   4 or 300 series
200 - 400F
ASTM
199
  Tubes Cr/Moly  9018B3
300 - 400F
ASTM
200
  Tubes Cr/Moly  200 - 600F
ASTM
202
  Pressure vessel low alloy  8018-G
9018-M
100 - 300F
ASTM
A203
Grades a-b-d-e
(A)
>37
255

(B)
>40
275

(D)
>37
206

(E)
>40
275
(A)
65-85
586

(B)
70-90
620

(D)
65-85
586

(E)
70-90
620
Pressure vessel plates for cryogenic use. Nickel alloy steels grades
A-B-E
<13mm 200F

grades
A-B-E
<25mm 300F
>25mm
400F

grades
D
<13mm 100F
<25mm
200F
>25mm 300F

Post heat if carb >0.15 >13mm 1200F

Post heat if carb <0.15 >25mm 1200F
(A)
K21703

(B)
K22103

(D)
K31718

(E)
K32018
(A)
Carb 0.17/0.23
Mn0.7/0.8
Si 0.15/0.4
Ni 2.1/2.5

(B)
Carb 0.21/0.25
Mn0.7/0.8
Si 0.15/0.4
Ni 2.1/2.5

(D)
Carb 0.17/0.20
Mn0.7/0.8
Si 0.15/0.4
Ni 3.25/3.75

(E)
Carb 0.2/0.23
Mn0.7/0.8
Si 0.15/0.4
Ni 3.25/3.75

Grades A-B
E8018-C1
E80T5-Ni2
E80S-Ni2

Grades D-E-F
E8018-C2
E80T5-Ni3
E80S-Ni3
ASTM
A204
Grades a-b-c
Grade A
>37
255

grade B
>40
275

grade
C
>43
296
Grade
A
65-85
448

grade 
B
70-90
620

grade
C
75-95
655
Nickel Alloy Pressure vessel steelsPreheat to 0.2 carb 25 to 50mm 100F >50mm 200F

Preheat  0.21-0.25 carb 13  to 25mm 100F >25mm 250F

Preheat  0.26-0.28 carb <13  100F >25mm 300F

postheat req 1250F

grade A
K11820

grade B
K12020

grade C
K12320
Grade A
carb 0.25
Mn 0.9
Si 0.3
Ni 0.6
Mo 0.6

Grade B
carb 0.27
Mn 0.9
Si 0.3
Ni 0.6
Mo 0.6

Grade C
carb 0.28
Mn 0.9
Si 0.3
Mo 0.45/0.6

Grades A-B
E7018-A1
E70T5-A1
E8XT-A1
E70S-6

Grade C
E8018-C2

ASTM
209
  Tubes   E70S-3-6
50 - 200F
ASTM
210
  Tubes Carbon stl  E70S-3-6
ASTM
211
  Pipe Carbon stl  E70S-3-6
ASTM
213
  Tubes

Chrome Moly and stainless

pre-heat 200 - 600 F

 8010
9018
308
ASTM
214
TubesCarbon stlsE70S-3-6
ASTM
A216
WCA
WCB
WCC
  High tem cast fittings  WCA
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3

WCB-WCC
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3
E10018-M
ASTM
A217
WC1-WC4
WC5-WC6
WC9-WC11
  Steel castingspost heat req 1250F

preheat
WC1 <50mm 150F
>50mm 250F

preheat
WC4-WC5 <13mm 200F
>13mm 350F

preheat
WC9  500F

preheat
WC6
WC11 <15% carb <25mm
150F >25mm 250F
>13mm 350F

preheat
WC6
WC11 to 21% carb <25mm
300F >25mm 400F

 WC1
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3

WC4-WC5
E8018-B2

WC9
E9018-B3

WC6-WC11
E8018-B2




Lamellar Tearing: When welding, the weld shrinkage stresses impose tensile strains in the steel plate or on inclusions paralleled to the plate surface. The tensile strains can separate the inclusions causing cracks. Excessive strains can further elongate the cracks. Carbon, manganese and low alloy steels made at the mill with inadequate deoxidization are sensitive to lamellar tearing. The potential for lamellar tearing increases with the amount of inclusions in the plates being welded. Of special concern is when the inclusions are parallel to the plate surface. More data in ASTM A770 / A770M Standard Spec for through thickness tension testing of steel plates.

 

Weld Question: When you see an electrode recommendation such as E8018-C1, who is the best reference source to convert that stick electrode to a flux cored or MIG wire?


Answer: I believe Alloy rods, (ESAB) Kobelco and Tri Mark, flux cored manufacturers have good reference data for this subject.


Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
Description Preheat 
 Postheat
UNSChemistry
weld data
ASTM
A225
A-B-C-D

(C)
>70
482
      

(D)
<75mm
>60

(D)
>75mm
>55





(C)
105-135
930

(D)
<75mm
80-115
792

(D)
>75mm
75-100
689






Pressure vessel plate bar shapes  Mn Vanadium Ni alloy steelspreheat
to 0.15 carb >50mm
100F

preheat
to 0.15/0.2 carb >50mm
100F >50mm 200F

preheat
>0.21 carb <13mm
100F >13mm 150F

post heat  treat 1150F

grade A K11803

grade B
K12003

grade C
K12524

Grade A
carb 0.18
Mn 1.45
Si 0.1-0.3
V 0.09/0.14

Grade B
carb 0.2
Mn 1.45
Si 0.1-0.3
V 0.09/0.14

Grade C
carb 0.25
Mn 1.6
Si 0.1-0.3
Ni 0.4/0.7
V 0.1/0.2

Grade D
carb 0.2
Mn 1.7
Si 0.1-0.5
Ni 0.4/0.7
V 0.18

grade A-B
8018-C3
E80S-Ni
E80T1-B2

grade C
E11018-M
E100S-1
E110T5-K3

grade D
E10018-M
E100S-1
ASTM
226
  Tubes carbon stl   E70S-3-6
ASTM
A234
WPA-WPB
WPC-WP1
WP11
  Wrought
weld fittings
  grades wpa-wpb
wpc
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3

grades wp1
E70XX-A1
E7XT-1
E70S-3

grades wp11
E8018-B2
ASTM
A235
A-C-C1
E-F-F1-G
  Industrial
forgings
  grades
A-C
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3

grades
C1-E-F-F1
E8018-C3

grades
G
E8018-B2
ASTM
A236
A-B-C-D
E-F-G-H
  Railroad
forgings
  grades A-B
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3

grades
C-D-E
E8018-C3

grades
F-G
E8018-B2
E8018-C3

grade H
E11018-M
ASTM
A237
A-B-C-D
E-C1
  Industrial
forgings
  grades A-B
E8018-C3

grades
C-D
E8018-B2

grades
C1-E
E11018-M

ASTM
A238
A-B-C
D-E
  Railroad
forgings
  grades A
E8018-C3

grades
B-C
E8018-B2

grades
C-D-E
E11018-M

ASTM
240
  

Pressure Vessels

stainless

  austenitic
ASTM
A242
1-2
42-50
344
63-70
482
High stength low alloy structural steel to 100mm
In hot rolled state
pre heat
25-50mm
50F
>50mm 150F
Type 1
K11510

Type 2
K12010
Canadian
CSA G40.21 50R Often call Cor-ten A

Type 1
Carb 0.15
Mn 1.0

Type 2
Carb 0.2
Mn 1.35

E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3

Unpainted
weathering
steel
E8018-W
E80T1-W

ASTM
A243
A-C-C1
E-F-F1-G-
H-I-J-K
  Ring and disc forgings   Grades
A-C-C1
E70XX
E7XT-1
E70S-3

Grades
E-F-H-1
E8018-C3

Grades
F1-G-J-K
E8018-B2 
ASTM
A245
  Structural sheets   E60XX
E70XX
E7XT-1
E70S-3


Toughness:The ability of the metal or weld sample at a predetermined temperature to withstand a shock.
The test for toughness measures the impact of a pendulum on a notched specimen. You may see that the required impact properties for the metal or weld are 20ft-lbf @ -20 F (27 j @ -29C)



Weld Question: Ed. Which should be the greater concern
rust or mill scale.





Answer:
Mill scale causes much more weld issues than rust.

Mill scale will effect
[1] the weld fusion potential,
[2] the weld travel rates attained,
[3] the weld appearance,
[4] the weld mode,
[5] the arc stability,
[6] weld pororisity
[7] weld spatter formation.






Ductility: The amount that a metal or weld will deform without breaking. Ductility is measured on welds by the % of elongation in 2 inch (51 mm) test piece. An E71T-1 flux cored electrode should result in a minimum of 20% elongation. An E70S-6 MIG weld should produce 22% elongation.



Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
Description Preheat 
 Postheat
UNSChemistry
weld data
ASTM
249
    Tubes stainless     austenitic
ASTM
250
    Tubes C/Mo     100 -200F
7018A1
ASTM
A252
  AISI specifications   E70XX
E7XT-1
E70S-3
ASTM
A266
1-2-3
   Drum forgings     grades
1-2
E70XX
E7XT-1
E70S-3

grade 3
8018-C3
ASTM
268
    Tubes stainless     410 - 409
300 - 400F
ASTM
269
    Tubes stainless    300 series
ASTM
270
    Tubes stainless
    308
ASTM
271
    Tubes stainless     308 -316 - 347
ASTM
A276
Type 410
  Stainless see stainless      
ASTM
A283
A-B-C-D
grade A
>24
165

grade B
27
186

grade
C
3O
206 

grade
D
>33
227 

 

grade 
A
45-55
379

grade
B
50-60
4136

grade
C
55- 65
448

grade
D
60-72
496
Low to intermediate
tensile steel plate. Canadian
G40.21 33G
preheat
carb 
0.25/0.3
>25mm
100F

preheat
carb 
0.31/0.35
>13mm
100F
>25mm
200F
 E70XX
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6
ASTM
A284
A-B-C-D

grade A
>25
172

grade B
>27
189

grade C
>30
206

grade D
>33
227

grade A
>50
344


grade B
>55
379

grade C
>60
413

grade D
>60
413

Low to medium tensile carbon steel plates preheat
carb 0.2/0.25
>50mm
100F

preheat
carb 0.26/0.3
25/50mm
100F >50mm
200F

preheat
carb >0.3
>13mm
100F >25mm
250F

If carb over 0.31 >25mm
post heat 1200F
grade A
K-1804
grade B
K02001
grade C
K02401
grade D
K02702
grade A-B
carb 0.24
Mn 0.9

grade C
carb 0.36
Mn 0.9

grade D
carb 0.35
Mn 0.9
ASTM
A285
A-B-C
grade A
>24
165

grade B
>27
186

grade C
>30
206

 

 

Grade A
45 - 65
448


grade B
50 - 70
482

grade C
50 - 75
517

Low to medium tensile pressure vessel plate to 50mm Preheat
carb >0.26
>25mm
100F

grade A
K01700

grade B
K02200

grade C
K02801

 

grade A carb 0.17
Mn 0.9
Cu 0.2/0.35

grade B
carb 0.22
Mn 0.9
Cu 0.2/0.35

grade C
carb 0.28
Mn 0.9
Cu 0.2/0.35

E70XX
E70S-6-3
E7XT-1

ASTM
288
    Forging carbon stl and low alloy stl     7018 - 9018 - 11018.
ASTM
289
    Forging alloy stl     chrome mang
ASTM
297
    Castings     308 -310- 330
ASTM
A299
A-B-C
40-42
275-289
75-95
517-655
Carbon Mn Si
Pressure vessel plates 
carb to 0.2 preheat >25mm 150F

Carb  
0.2/ 0.25 preheat >13/25mm 100F >25mm
150F

Carb  
0.26/ 0.3 preheat <13mm 100F <25mm
200F >25mm 300F

Carb <0.2 to 13mm post heat not req

Carb >0.2  post heat  req 1150F

K02803 carb 0.28/0.3
Mn 0.9/1.15
Si 0.15/0.4






E70XX
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6

 

For improved impacts
E8018-C3
E80T-1-Ni1

 

 

 

Weld Question: Ed. I have welded parts at Caterpillar plants. They weld many of the ASTM steels listed here. They rarely use pre-heat even on the very thick steels. Why do they not comply with the ASTM specs heat treat requirements?

Answer: "A spec is only a spec"

No code or specification body takes responsibility for what is written in their codes or specifications. Specifications are set of guidelines. In the case of the ASTM specs the heat treat recommendations are to make the weld properties conform with the base metal properties yet many times its not practical or logical to do this. If an organization produces multi-pass welds, the multi pass heat input act the same as a post heat treatment and the extra passes will have an extensive influence on the mechanical properties of the welds and the base metals.

Qualification of the multi-pass welds and HAZ with the specific weld procedures utilized always will have far more relevance than a specification which was typically written for a single pass weld.



 

Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
Description Preheat 
 Postheat
UNSChemistry
weld data
ASTM
A300
1-2
  Low temp pressure vessel   grade 1
E70XX
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6

grade 2
E8018-C1
ASTM
A302
A-B
  pressure vessel steel   E8018-B2
ASTM
A306
45-50-55
60-65-70
75-80
  Carbon steel bars   grades
45-50-55
60-65-70
E70XX
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6

grades
75-80
E8018-C1
ASTM
A311
  corresponds to AISI SAE steels 1137
Check out AISI weld and heat treat data
  
grades 1018-1117
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6

grades
1035-1045
1050
E10018-M
E100T1-K3

grades
1137 to 1144
E11O18-M
E110T5-K2


ASTM
312
  300 series stainless pipe    
ASTM
A321
50-75
344-517
85-110
586-758
corresponds to AISI SAE steels    high carb 0.55 max
Mn 0.6/0.9
Si 0.15/0.35
E9018-M
E90T1-K2
E80S-D2
ASTM
A328
  steel sheet pilings   E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6
ASTM
A322
  corresponds to AISI SAE steel bars
A322 over 70 AISI designations 
   
ASTM
A328
  steel sheet pilings carb 
0.3 TO 0.4 >13mm 100F
 carb 0.32/0.39
Mn 0.7/0.9
Cu 0.2

E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6

ASTM
A331
  corresponds to AISI SAE steel bars
A322 over 80 AISI designations 
   
ASTM
A333
A334
  carbon steel and low alloy pipe    E8018

 

 

 

Hardness. The resistance of the metal or the weld to penetration. The resistance of the metal or the weld to penetration. Hardness is related to the strength of the metal. A good way to test a weld after the weld and heat treatment are complete is to test the hardness of weld and the base metal surrounding the weld.





Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
Description Preheat 
 Postheat
UNSChemistry
weld data
ASTM
A335
  Cr Mo Pipe   
ASTM
A336
F1-F12

  Alloy drum forgings  grade F1
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6

grade F12
E8018-B2
ASTM
A350
LF1-LF12
   LF1 - LF2
preheat <25mm 100F >25mm 200F

LF3 - LF5
preheat <25mm 100F >25mm 200F
 E8018-C1
E8018-C3
E80T1-Ni1
ASTM
351
  Stainless castings  308
310
316
ASTM
A352
LCA-LCB
LCC-LC1
LC2
  low temp steel castingspreheat grades
LCA-LCB-
LCC
<0.25 carb >25mm 50F >50mm 100F

preheat LCB
0.26/0.3 carb <25mm 50F >25mm 100F

preheat LC1
<25mm 100F >50mm 300F

preheat LC2-3-4
carb max 0.15
<25mm 100F >25mm 250F

preheat LC2-3-4
carb max 0.25
<13mm 150F >13mm 250F >25mm 325F
 Grades LCA-LCB
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6

Grades LC1
E7018-A1

Grades LC2-3
E8018-C1
E8XT1-Ni2

Post heat
desirable 1150F
ASTM
A353
>75
517
100-120
689-827
9% Nickel pressure vessel steel platepreheat
<25mm 50F >25mm 150F
K81340Carb 0.13
Mn 0.9
Si 0.15/0.4
Ni 8.5/9.5

ENiCrFe-3
INCO 182
ENiCrFe-2
INCO-A

ERNiCr-3
INCO 82
or ERNiCrFe-6
INCO 92

E309/E310
often used
ASTM
A356
1-2-5-6-
9-10
  Steam turbine castings  grade 1
E7018
E7XT-1
E70S-3-6

grade 2
E7018-A1
E8018-C3

grade 5
E8018-B2
E90T1-D3

grade 6-9-10
E8018-B2
E80T1-B2
A358
  Austenitic Stainless pipe   
ASTM
A361
  Galvanized
sheet
  E60XX
E70XX
E70S-3

 

 

 

Weld Questions. Do you have the instant answers? What do you think the optimum wire feed and weld voltage range is for welding with an E70T-1 1/16 062 flux cored wire welding a common 6 mm - 1/4 fillet weld. The answers are in my books.




Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
Description Preheat 
 Postheat
UNSChemistry
weld data
ASTM
A366
  Carbon steel
sheets
  E60XX
E70XX
E70S/3-6
ASTM
369
  Carbon stl and Cr Mo Pipe   see pipe
ASTM
A372
1-2-3-4
  Pressure vessel forgings   Grade 1
E7018
E70S-3-6
E7XT-1

grade 2
E8018-C3

grade 3
E8018-B2

grade 4
E11018-M

ASTM
A374
A375
  Low alloy steel strip   E7018
E70S-3/6
E7XT-1
ASTM
376
  Austenitic Stainless pipe   see pipe
ASTM
381
  carbon stl pipe   7018
E70S-6
ASTM
A387
2-5-7-9
11-12-21
21-22
grade 2
>33 Annealed

grade 2
>45 
normalized

grade 2
55-80 Annealed

grade 2
70 - 90 
normalized

pressure vessel plate
Cr Mo available in annealed normalized state
grade 2
PREHEAT to O 0.15 carb <25mm 200F

grade 2
PREHEAT > O 0.16 carb <25mm 300F >25mm 400F

grade 2 post heat 1200F
grade 2
K121143

grade 5
K415445

grade 7
S50300

grade 9
S50400

grade 11
K11789

grade 12
K11757

grade 21
K31545

grade 22
K21590
grade 2
carb 0.2
Mn 0.55/0.8
Si 0.4
Cr 0.5/0.8
Mo 0.45/0.6

grade 2-12
E8018-B2
E80T1-B2

grade 21-22
E9018-b3
E90t1-b3
ASTM
A389
C23
 high tem castings
   E8018-B2
A391
Grade 80
Alloyhigher strength than A413 chains can be used for overhead lifts   

 

 

Ed in Thailand managing a Textron project. The mission fix a 276,000 psi tensile steel armor plate,mult-million dollar welding problem:




This USA Textron tank was made out of 275.000 ksi tensile, armor steel. Due to lack of weld manufacturing management, some parts were welded in the wrong location between the tank tracks. These welded parts were subject to abnormal stresses from the tracks and resulted in numerous cracks when the tanks were field tested in Thailand.

If you tried to repair the armor plate cracked welds which had extensive martensitic formation in their HAZ, more cracks would instantly occur from the weld repair heat input. What would you recommend to resolve this multi-million dollar issue. This was my first consulting job and it was a real welding challenge
.



If you are teaching your self, or providing weld process control training for others, the following resources are the key to attaining MIG and flux cored weld process optimization.

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Item 6a. The Self Teaching MIG Book/ Video. (MIG Made Simple in English).

Note: Items 2-3-4 are the most comprehensive process control, self teaching and training programs ever developed..

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