Written by Ed Craig. www.weldreality.com.
Contact Ed. EMail firstname.lastname@example.org.
WELCOME TO ED'S
SIMPLIFICATION OF MIG
& FLUX CORED WELDING COSTS.
by Metric Weld Conversion Data.
What's the actual weld cost per part?
MIG & Flux Cored
You may not want to walk into a welding shop, examine
common 1/4 (6 mm) MIG or flux cored fillet
the shop manager
what does one meter of that fillet
difficult in the global weld industry to find weld
that have full control
understand the weld costs.
The majority of manufacturing
mangers or supervisors will know the cost of the weld wire or gas,
will be aware of their MIG and Flux Cored weld deposition potentials or the hourly
deposition rates being achieved by the welders or robots they walk by each day.
When there is global empathy towards weld personnel "playing around with MIG & Flux Cored weld controls, and it's difficult to find weld managers or supervisors that understand the real weld costs, you know something has to change:
cost, best practices - process control resources simplify
WHAT HAVE SHIP YARDS AND CAR PLANTS OFTEN GOT IN COMMON?
THE BAD NEWS: These are two dinosaur industries in which weld best practices are almost none existant, and weld process ignorance and hands off management / engineering has led to a weld shop culture in which the paitents are running the hospital, change is the most difficult thing to implement and the weld costs are typically out of control.
THE GOOD NEWS: In the above enviroment there is always great opportunity for weld quality - productivity improvements with tremendous weld cost savings..
WELD REALITY: WITH
WELD REWORK DOLLAR COST PER-SHIP, FREQUENTLY MEASURED IN THE MILLIONS, THE
MAJORITY OF SHIP YARDS HAVE NOT ESTABLISHED
BEST MIG / FLUX CORED WELD PRACTICES AND PROVIDED THEIR EMPLOYEES WITH MIG AND
FLUX CORED WELD PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING:
EASY TO GENERATE MULTI-MILLION
DOLLAR COST SAVINGS IN
A SHIP YARD: During
the first four months of 2007, Ed presented his unique,
manual, flux cored process control
training programs to Aker Kvaerner. Aker is an
international ship builder located
at the the Philadelphia Naval Ship Yard.
300 plus welders in the yard used E71T-1 (1.2 mm)
flux cored wires to weld
all position, vee groove, 12 to 25mm, steel joints with
any ship yard, the Aker weld focus was on SMAW welder "skills".
at the yard, the welders had to pass an all position, flux cored
weld qualification tests and weld in accordance with the ABS and the pre-qualified
WELD LOGIC & WELD REALITY IS USUALLY IN
SHORT SUPPLY AT MANY SHIP YARDS.
The flux cored weld test and welder qualification test was nothing more than a chance for the welders to put the weld in then grind the weld out. The test also had little in common with
the weld requirements and application variables typically found
in any ship yard.
To show the management what an important missing link was, I provided a fundamental written process control weld test for all those involved. This test reveal that all those
who passed the welder qualification test, lacked flux cored weld process / consumable
expertise and lacked the awareness of the unique requirements to attain consistent
optimum weld quality for vee groove, ceramic backed welds. This is common in every global ship yard and especially common in Naval ship yards. Ships yards pay a price for process ignorance and at Aker that weld rework costs per-ship was approx. eigtht miillion dollars per-oit tanker.
training program I provided focussed on flux cored Weld Process Controls,consumable knowledge
and optimum weld process best practices and techniques nevessay for all position, vee groove welds with ceramic
In a time of MIG - flux cored and TIG welder shortage, when many companies
find it difficult to interrupt their daily fire quenching, management take note.
Ed's unique weld process training program required only eight
hours, four hours classroom and four hours hands on. In a few weeks the
training for the 300 plus welders was complete and
ship yard QA department personnel started to analyze the results.
I CAN NEVER UNDERSTAND THE QA PHILOSPHY THATS PREVELENT IN TODAY'S GLOBAL WELD SHOPS. THESE SHOPS FREELY SPEND MONEY ON QA DEPARTMENT AND PERSONNEL WHO'S GOAL IN LIFE IS TO FIND DEFECTS AFTER THE WELDS ARE COMPLETE. I WOULD RATHER RUN A WELD SHOP IN WHICH THOSE THAT PRODUCE WELDS ARE GIVEN THE PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING NECESSARY TO PREVENT WELD DEFECTS.
months after Ed's flux cored weld process control the training, the ship yard
NDT results indicated a 50%
reduction in the required weld rework per-ship. The
ship yard management reported that the reduced weld rework, labor and NDT costs,
would resulted in a cost savings of approx. 4 million dollars per-ship.
COST BENEFITS FROM HIGH IMPACT, ONE DAY BEST PRACTICES - PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING:
the real world ship yard weld cost reduction and benefits from my unique flux cored process
control training program. The training program required
300 x 8 man/hr. = 2400
man hours at an approx. $30/hr, base labor cost for
the ship yard. $72,000. For
the training. To this add the actual training costs
of approx. $100,000 = for
a total training costs for the 300 welders. Total Train cost, $172,000.
With a $172K invested the ship yard saved approx. four million dollars
unreported fact from this yard was the changes that Ed also established in the
development of new weld procedures. The increased flux cored wire feed rates,
(weld deposition rates) in the new procedures increased the daily weld productivity
per-man in a range from 20 to 40%.
of you may wonder what's the difference
between this type of weld training program and the MIG and flux cored weld training
you could expect in any North American, Korean, Chinese, Japanese, European ship
yard or any manufacturing facility?
decades conventional training in ship yards, Navy yards
plants has focussed on the "welders skills", especially on stick welding skills which
has nothing in common with the requirements for MIG or flux cored weld.
It's not unusual
for weld personnel to have weeks of hands on MIG and flux cored welder training at the ship yards and then
find that when it comes to MIG and flux cored welds, the welders will;
Play with the MIG weld equipment controls and rarely dial in optimum settings
for the different welds.
[b] Utilize the weld controls
in a very limited manner. In the ship yards I visted it was common to find the welders would all use one setting for all welds. (its enough to make a grown man cry).
[c] Not utilize the optimum best practices - weld techniques necessary for the MIG and flux cored process.
Typically innapropriate stick weld techniques were
common with the MIG and flux cored process.
[d] Lack awareness of the weld
deposition rate potential for a specific weld and the parameters selected. This of course limits the daily
weld productivity potential the welders could achieve.
Flux cored and MIG process control training
is available in CD format. As with
my training programs, the training enables each individual to achieve weld process optimization
for the flux cored consumables utilized and for
the all position, vee groove,
ceramic backed, or open root applications.
For the welders who took the eight 8
hour training, program the simple clock method enabled thoseindividuals to have the ability
to instantly set optimum parameters for the consumable, and weld joint variables which in the yard were many. The training provides instant dramatic improvements in their weld ability as you can see with this before and after weld.
you can see, on the left picture we have a weld made by a so called qualified welder that obviously had poor
weld skills, poor techniques and poor settings. These two vertical up, 15 mm vee groove, ceramic backed
weld samples, using E71T-1 flux cored wires and straight CO2, were made by the
same welder on the day of training. On the left before, the training and on the right after
the 8 hours of best practice - process control training.
when the welder had good skills, process control training will increase the welders
weld quality and productivity capability. What was also important, each welder
became aware of the unique flux cored weld parameters and technique requirements
to address the variable edge preps and root gaps over the ceramic. Ceramic is rarely used outside
ship yards and welding oversized root gaps across a none conductive ceramic requires
unique process and technique requirements. The weld training results were dramatic,
all weld personnel attaining an instant
reduction in lack of weld fusion, slag entrapment and porosity defects.
2400 hours at $172.000 versus 12000 hrs and $500,000 costs
improvements by all the welders was immediately noticed by the ship yard QA management
who daily measured the dramatic improvements evident with NDT and radiographs
and the allocated man hours required for weld rework .
the way, few global ship yards or manufacturing facilities examine the cost effectiveness
of the training programs they develop. Instead of an eight hour training program,
many yards would not think twice about providing a forty hour welder training
program. For 300 welders in a North American facility, that 40 hours training
with labor and associated training costs would be approx. $500,000.
Plus the facility will have lost 12000 production hours.
thanks to some Tom
O'Malley the owner of Excell. Tom's company was the prime weld products supplier
to the Philadelphia Naval Ship yard. Tom provided the facilities and equipment
for the training. Tom also assisted with the program in both the classroom
and hands on training. Tom was one of those rare owners of a weld supply company
that actually spends many hours per-week evaluating weld processes equipment and
|"There is one way to quickly attain Best Weld Practices
and Weld Process Control
I took over 2000 hours to develop the MIG and Flux Cored weld best practices - process control
programs. They are available in CD Power
AND WELD COSTS ....When a manufacturing company
invests in costly robots and fixtures, the robot purchase is in most instances
intended to reduce the costs of manual weld production.
sad reality with many companies, is their robots rarely provide their real weld
their production potential and too many robot welds
require extensive manual weld repairs.
prime factors that control the robot weld production efficiency potential are;
optimizing the robot wire feed rates utilized,
 controlling the part
 controlling the weld size and length,
the robot movement / motion times,
 maintaining the robot arc on times,
eliminating the causes of the robot down time,
 eliminating the robot
primary influence on robot weld efficiency is the required robot arc on
time a time regulated by the wire feed rate attained. The wire feed rate
controls the robot weld speed.
It's unfortunate that some Japanese robots
do not provide the robot wire feed rates. These robots will have the robot programmer
select "weld amps". I have been in numerous Panasonic robot weld cells
and the companies do not have a clue as to the weld wire feed rates produced.
So much for manufacturing and Japanese focus on weld productivity.
To control MIG weld costs, someone in the plant has to understand
the relationship between the desired welds, the weld wire size, the wire feed
rates and weld deposition attained. This process subject is part of the fundamental
weld process expertise that should be common knowledge in all plants that MIG
and flux cored weld.
following book and CD training resources developed by Ed, provide the manual and
robot process control data that all engineers, managers, supervisors and technicians
need to control
A WELD SHOP SUPERVISOR THE COST OF A MIG WELD AND THEY WILL TELL YOU
THEY DON'T KNOW, BUT THEY WILL TELL YOU THE COST OF THE WELD WIRE OR GAS.
process control and consumable knowledge is the key component to implementing effective BEST
WELD PRACTICES - WELD PROCESS CONTROLS. This sounds logical, yet few managers
and engineers have this expertise. If a manufacturing facility if the key management dont know what it takes for process optimization they will not demand it from the people who should be responsible.
To effectively manage a weld shop and maximize the daily robot weld quality
and productivity, management, supervisors and engineers must provide their employees
with a weld process control training program that provides;
MAXIMUM WELD PRODUCTIVITY POTENTIAL WITH LOWEST WELD COSTS: To minimize weld costs, those that make the weld decisions must understand the
weld process fundamentals that focus on the application's weld deposition rate
potential for the part thickness, the weld size, the wire size and weld transfer mode
[b] OPTIMUM WELD QUALITY POTENTIAL: To consistently optimize weld quality, the
decision maker must without getting advice from a salesman, fully understand the process, the weld mode, parameters,
and consumable requirements necessary.
WELD PROCESS CONTROLS:
Once any production weld is established, that weld needs to be managed through the implimentation of weld process controls. If you work in a weld shop in which weld personnel "play around" with their weld controls, how can you considers your organization to be professional when the welds are being produced by
semi-skilled personnel. You know what the welders need, provide it.
IF THEY ARE NOT CONTROLLONG BOTH WELD QUALITY AND COST, WHAT
PURPOSE OF A WELD MANAGER, ENGINEER, TECHNICIAN OR SUPERVISOR?
week in the global weld industry, its unlikely you will find one manager in a
hundred who takes the time to have a discussion with their employees on the subject
of controlling the weld department costs.
The weld reality is most weld
supervisors are more interested in ensuring the weld personnel are not hiding
in the wash room, than in how to minimize their weld rework or maximize the daily
weld deposition rates.
While weld cost focus is too often on weld consumable
costs, the MIG / flux cored wire and gas typically account for only 12 to 16%
of the total cost of a carbon steel weld.
CAN ANY WELD MANGER, ENGINEER, SUPERVISOR OR TECHNICIAN, BE PROUD TO WORK IN AN ENVIRONMENT
IN WHICH THE WELD
PERSONNEL DAILY PLAY AROUND" WITH THEIR
He is the robot weld supervisor at GM, we have to
out his "play around organ"
first step in controlling MIG weld costs is
understand the "wire feed control".
MY UNIQUE, SIMPLE WELD CLOCK CONTROL METHOD, WELD PROCESS CONTROL
IS MADE EASY. WITH A TRADITIONAL "NONE DIGITAL" WIRE FEED CONTROL SIMPLY
DIVIDE THE CONTROL INTO TEN CLOCK SETTINGS BETWEEN 7 AND 5 O'CLOCK.
EACH WIRE FEED TURN DELIVERS APPROXIMATELY 70 in./min PER WIRE FEED TURN.
IN EUROPE I USE TWO METERS PER TURN
WITH AN 0.035 (1mm) STEEL OR STAINLESS
WIRE, EACH WIRE FEED TURN WILL DELIVER 1.1 POUNDS PER TURN: SET THE WIRE FEED
CONTROL AT THE 3 O'CLOCK POSITION, EIGTH TURN AND THE WIRE FEEDER DELIVERS 8 TO
the 0.045 (1.2 mm) wire, each wire feed turn is approx. 2 lb/hr. Using a standard,
none digital wire feeder, to set a low spray setting,set
the wire feed at the 12 o'clock position. 12 o'clock is the fifth turn. 5 x 70
= 350 inch/min.This wire feed position with the 0.045 (1.2 mm) wire would deliver
approximately 10 lbs/hr.
The robot set at 350 inch/min has an arc on time of 30 minutes
per/hr, so the robot uses 5 lbs/ of wire per hour, or 40 lb per-shift. Lets say
this application could be welded with another turn 12 lb/hr, the robot weld time
would be reduced by 20%. Are you getting how easy the weld clock method is?
out Ed's unique, simple weld clock process
control method, it's in his CD training resources and process control books. Ed
spent 30 years on simplifying the MIG/MAG flux cored processes and you know how
important the KIS principle is to a weld shop. This method is easy to teach, because
its easy to remember.
AND MANUAL WELD QUALITY:
number one controlling factor of setting optimum quality MIG welds for any weld
weld transfer mode is to understand where you set the MIG wire feed setting.
AND AND WELD COSTS:
number one method of controlling MIG and flux cored weld costs is understanding
the relationship between wire feed setting and the weld deposition rate attained.
The majority of welds produced daily in the industrial world are based
on three simple fillet weld sizes. 3/16 - 1/4 - 5/16 (4 - 6 - 8 mm). Is it therefore
reasonable to expect that all the weld personnel at your company should be aware
of the optimum wire feed settings and weld deposition rate potential for these
CAN COSTS BE IN CONTROL WHEN THE PROCESS FUNDAMENTALS ARE MISSING?
MOST COMMON MIG WELD IS A 1/4 (6 mm) FILLET.
welds are made with 0.045 (1.2 mm) wire. For decades, on the
conventional MIG wire
manual welders may place a scratch or pen mark at the one o'clock
position. In an other
of the shop the the new digital feeders are set at 420 inch/min,
the robot cell that 1/4 fillet weld data is also
set at 4 20 inch /min.
You could ask three
of the most experienced weld personnel in
organization, what weld deposition
rate per/hr is achieved
with the wire feed
set at 420 inch/min and would we be
better of with an 0.052 (1.4 mm) wire set
at 350 inch/min? Dont bother emailing me their confused replies.
ask yourself, when are you going to get serious about being in the welding business?
When are you going to get a grip of weld costs? When are you going
to arrange weld process control training for the employees?
PROCESS CONTROL BOOKS AND CD'S SIMPLIFY THE TASK OF ASSOCIATING WIRE
FEED SETTINGS WITH WELD WIRES / WELD SIZES AND WELD DEPOSITION RATES. USE THESE
RESOURCES OR MY ROBOT WELD PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING PROGRAMS TO BE A PROFESSIONAL AT WHAT YOU DO AND TAKE YOUR
ORGANIZATION UP A NOTCH.
Working out Weld
WELD DEPOSITION RATES:
In the following example MIG welding 24 parts an hour,
the parts are made out of 7 mm carbon steel. We learn from the clock method
that the average weld deposition rate attained by the welder to spray transfer
the 6 mm fillet weld when using an 0.045 (1.2mm) wire, is approx. 9
lb/hr (4.5kg/hr). Remember weld deposition rates drive weld costs.
MIG WIRE COSTS: If the manual
MIG welders arc on time per-hour is 20 minutes, the welder on average deposits 3 lb/hr. The
carbon steel, MIG wire cost $1 per/lb. The hourly MIG wire cost $3
MIG WELD COSTS: The
argon CO2 cylinder mix was $40.00 per-cylinder. A typical
full size gas cylinder will deliver on average approximately 300 cuft. The cylinder
gas cost is 13 cents per-cubic foot.
The MIG gas flow rate per/hour
is 30 cuft/hr. The welder average an arc on time of 20 minutes per hour results
in a gas use of 10 cuft/hr. 10 cuft x 13 cents = a MIG gas cost of $1.30
MIG WELD LABOR COSTS:
The average, 2013
hourly "welder's wage" in the USA is a sad $13 an hour, with benefits
its approx. $18 - $20 an hour.
Note; some companies when trying to evaluate welding costs, like to add the total
white collar overhead including the kitchen sink and the coffee machines on the
backs of the blue collar labor costs. In weld cost calculations this overhead is
an unnecessary distraction to the real world weld cost formula.
With an overhead of $20 / hr, plus $3
/ hr for wire and $1.30 hr for weld gas, the total hourly cost per MIG welder is $24
hour. Producing welds at 3 lb/hr results in a weld cost per pound of weld
metal deposited at $8 per/lb. Producing 24
parts an hour, weld cost per part is a $1.
Please note: If you cannot work out weld costs in your head, you are not in control of
your welds or your weld costs. An engineer, manager or supervisor who had utilized my process
control CDs or books would be aware that
for the 6 mm fillet weld, the welders could increase their wire feed control to
readily attain a weld deposition rate of 12 lb/hr
The 25% an hour increase in weld deposition allowed
25% more parts per-hour. Weld productivity increases from 24 to 30 parts. With the
12 lb/hr deposition, the 20-minute arc on time results in a weld deposition rate of 4
lb/hr (1.8 kg/hr). The overhead costs are increased by a dollar for the
extra one pound of wire utilized. Labor, weld wire and gas therefore cost $25
Divide the $25 by 30 parts and you have approximately $0.83 per - part for a saving
of 0.17 cents (17 %) per-part, all from weld process
(deposition) awareness, and simple single turn of the wire feed control knob.
WELD PROCESS KNOWLEGE PAYS IN MANY WAYS:
simple turn of the MIG wire feed control, a change in wire diameter or a change from the short
circuit mode to globular, or fa change rom globular to spray or from pulsed to spray, and most weld shops,
can typically reduce their weld costs
in the range of 20 to 50%.
When weld management and supervision focus on weld process capability, wire feed rates and weld deposition rate potential,
this will typically ensure dramatic weld cost reduction, however this is not likely
to happen with any weld shop that allows "play around" MIG / Flux cored control employees.
To make weld process changes, requires weld personnel have process confidence.
This is one good reason to think a little less about spending thousands on over
priced pulsed MIG welding equipment and a little more about investing a few hundred
dollars for providing Ed's MIG process-training
on this manual MIG weld trailer job was simple.
hundred trailers were required by the Smith Alloy Corporation. Each trailer had
a total of forty feet (12 m) of 1/4 (6mm) fillet weld. The MIG weld wire used
was an E70S-3. The wire size 0.045 (1.2 mm). The cylinder weld gas, argon - 15%
The company that got the contract to build the trailers had five
MIG welders who each work an 8-hour day. The welder labor overhead was $25 an
hour. How long will it take to complete the job and what will be the welding cost?
Using my robot and manual MIG weld process control
training resources this is how you would
take 8 simple steps to approach this task.
much MIG weld wire is required? The 1/4
(6mm) fillet requires 0.11 lbs of weld per foot of weld. That's 0.11 x 40 feet
= 4.4 lbs of filler metal required per trailer x trailers = 2.200 pounds of MIG
wire for all the trailers.
How much will the weld wire cost?
The 0.045 filler metal cost $0.90 cents / lb x 4.4 lbs/part = $3.96 weld wire
costs per trailer, or the wire cost for 500 trailers is $1980.00.
How many man-hours are required?
Using my simple weld clock parameter method, you would be aware of where the welders
will have to set the 0.045 wire feed to weld the 6 mm fillet and that the weld
deposition rate would be approx. 12 lb/hr. However the manual arc on time per/hr
for the average welders is only 20 minutes. The welders deposited approximately
4 pounds per/hr. The 500 trailers will use 2200 pounds, divide by the 4 lb/hr,
the welding job will require
550 man hours.
The weld gas costs, and how many cylinders required?
A cylinder of argon CO2 costs $40 cyl. The cyl contains
330 cuft ($0.12 per cu/ft). The gas flow is 30 cuft/hr but the welders arc on
time is 20 min, so the gas used is only 10 cuft/hr x 0.12 cents = $1.20 / hr for
the gas. The job requires 550 hrs x $1.20 = $660 for the gas, (550 hrs x 10 cuft
= 5500 cuft divide by a cyl 330 cuft = 17-18 cylinders required for the project.
The total weld consumables cost per trailer: The cost of consumables for the job
is weld wire $1980, + gas $660, = $2640 divide by 500 trailers or consumable costs
$5.28 per trailer.
The labor cost per / trailer. The cost of labor is 550 man hours required x $25/hr
= $13.750 for the 500 trailers or labor cost per trailer $27.50.
Total weld cost per trailer is $5.28 for consumables + $27.50 for labor =
$33 per trailer.
The time required to weld all the parts. The time required to do the job with
5 welders (40 hour / day). The job requires 550 man/hours divide by 40 requires
has a point. The bottom line, this weld cost approach is simple. Last time I saw
Miller, or was
it the Licoln or Hobart rep? I asked for a manual weld cost analysis, these guys
used a computer and delivered pages of confusing weld cost data. Now
I have finally got down to figuring out the real costs of the manual MIG welds,
I will see if we can do anything about weld cost reduction by using robots.
For those individuals making "weld cost decisions" or "weld process control" decisions. consider
Ed's process control CD training programs
for either MIG and flux cored
|ROBOT WELD TRAILER COSTS: For
those interested in how the manual trailer weld costs are
reduced using a
robot for welding the 500 trailers, scroll down.
the trailer job using a Robot is simple.
We will now quote the trailer welds
using a robot. Each of the
500 trailers has forty feet (12 m) of 1/4 (6mm) fillet weld. We arel welding with
an 0.045 (1.2 mm) MIG wire, and an argon - 15% CO2 cylinder mix.
will use one robot with two operators. One robot operator works days, the other
is on the afternoon shift. The weld labor overhead is $25/hr. How long will it
take to complete the job with robot? What's the weld cost per-part? How will the
cost compare to the above manual welding operation?
THE EIGHT STEP METHOD FOR THE ROBOT COSTS:
How much weld wire required? A 1/4
(6mm) fillet requires approx. 0.11 lbs per foot of weld x 40 feet = 4.4 lbs of filler metal
required per part x 500 = 2.200 lbs of MIG wire required.
How much will the weld wire cost? The 0.045
filler metal cost $0.90 cents/lb x 4.4 lbs/part = $3.96 per part, or the MIG wire
cost for 500 parts is $1980.00.
How many robot / man hours required?
Using my clock parameter method (wire feed set at 1 o'clock which is the sixth turn 6 x 70 =420 IPM) 6 x 2 + 12lb/hr) you would know the robot
is set to deposit the 0.045 wire feed at a weld deposition rate of 12 lb/hr. However
in contrast to the manual welders, the robots weld faster and the arc on time
per/hr is increased to 40 minutes per-hour. With the increased arc on time the
robot deposits 8 pounds per/hr for two shifts. The two shifts (16 hrs a day x
8 lbs / hr = 128 lbs per day). The 500 parts require 2200 pounds of weld metal,
divide by the 8 lb/hr deposited the job will require 275
man hours. (Its actually less
when you look into the weld speed benefits, however I havet to save something for my
process control weld books, right).
the 500 welded parts, the robot with the increased arc on time will require 275
man hours. The manual welding job as discussed required 550
man hours for the same application .
The robot gas costs and how many cylinders required?
A cylinder of argon - CO2 costs $40 cyl. The cylinder contains
330 cuft ($0.12 per cu/foot). The gas flow is 30 cuft/hr, however the robot's
arc on time is 40 min, so the gas used is 20 cuft/hr x 0.12 cents = $2.40/ hr
for the gas. The job requires 275 hrs x $2.40 = $660 for the gas. As the robot
weld speeds will be approx 20% quicker with the robot you can expect a 20% reduction
in the weld gas cost. Gas cost
The total consumable cost: The cost of consumables for the job, MIG wire
$1980, + gas $528, = $2508 divide by 500 trailers or $5
The labor cost per trailer. The
cost of labor is 275 robot / man
$25/hr = $6.875.00
or labor per trailer is $13.75.
Total weld cost per trailer.
$13.75 labor = $5 consumables = $18.75
robot costs for welding the trailers was $6.875.00.
The manual labor costs for the same parts was $13.750.00.
total manual MIG weld cost per trailer was $32.78. Using a robot for the trailer reduced
the manual MIG weld costs from $27.50 to $18.75 per trailer.
DO I KNOW HOW MUCH WELD WIRE TO ORDER FOR A WELD JOB?
First determine the average fillet or groove weld
size. Use the following guidelines, and when you come to the final MIG weld wire
amount add 10% as a cushion factor. If you are going to use flux cored wires add
20% to the MIG wire recommendations. For the metric users, 1 lb / ft of weld to
1 kg/m, x 1.488.
following is the approximate amount of MIG filler metal required per foot of weld.
All the weld cost data you need for any MIG or FCAW application can be found in
my "Management Engineers Guide To MIG"
book. and in the process control training resources
STEEL or STAINLESS WELD WIRE REQUIRED PER FOOT OF WELD:
1/8 ( 3 mm fillet requires 0.03 lbs of weld wire
per foot of weld.
1/4 (6 mm fillet requires 0.11 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.
3/8 (9 mm fillet requires 0.29 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.
1/2 (13mm fillet requires 0.42 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.
3/4 (19mm fillet requires 1.09 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.
1" (25mm fillet requires 1.80 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.
3/8 (9 mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 0.55
1/2 (13mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 0.85 lb/per foot
1/2 (13mm butt 60 degree Single vee 3/8 root 1.4 lb/per foot
3/4 (19mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 1.64 lb/per foot
3/4 (19mm butt 60 degree Single vee 3/8 root 2.3 lb/per foot
1" (25mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 2.67 lb/per foot
1" (25mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/2 root 4 lb/per foot
2" (50mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 9.6 lb/per foot
3" (75mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 20 lb/per foot
4" (100mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 36 lb/per foot
HOW MANY POUNDS OF WIRE REQUIRED?
1/8 3.2 mm fillet = 0.092 lb/ft 0.03 kg/m
3/16 4.8 mm fillet = 0.026 lb/ft 0.04 kg/m
1/4 6.4 mm fillet = 0.05 lb/ft 0.07 kg/m
3/8 9.5 mm fillet = 0.06 lb/ft 0.09 kg/m
butt weld 13 mm plate 60 degree single V = 0.3 lb/ft
butt weld 18 mm plate 60 degree single V = 0.4 lb/ft 0.66kg/m
butt weld 25 mm plate 60 degree single V = 0.82 LB/FT 1.2kg/m
butt weld 38 mm plate 60 degree single V 1.7 lb/ft 2.6 kg/m
butt weld 50 mm plate 60 degre single V 2.8 lb/ft 4.2 kg/m
ALUMINUM "ipm" FEED RATE TO WELD
0.8 mmwire, ipm x 0.004 = lb/hr
0.9 mmwire, ipm x 0.0056 - l/hr
1.2mm wire, ipm x 0.0099 = lb/hr
1.4mm wire, ipm x 0.012 = lb/hr
1.6mm wire, ipm x 0.017 = lb/hr
2.4mm wire, ipm x 0.0415 = lb/hr.
ALUMINUM "m/min"FEED RATE TO WELD
wire, m/min x 0.07 = kg/hr
mm wire, m/min x 0.09 = kg/hr
mm wire, m/min x 0.16 = kg/hr
mm wire, m/min x 0.23 = kg/hr
mm wire, m/min x 0.306 = kg/hr
mm wire, m/min x 0.74 = kg/hr.
structural steel company wants to MIG weld 5 bridge structures. Each structure
has approximately 5000 feet of 1/4 fillet welds. The welders will use 0.045 MIG
wire. The manager wants a quick quote on the following.
How much weld wire required?
How much weld gas required?
how many man hours to weld?
The above table tells you that a 1/4 6 mm fillet requires 0.11 lb/foot of
weld. 5000 feet x 0.11 requires 550 pounds of weld metal. Add 15% for cushion
Use my clock method to determine that the spray setting will deposit for this
application 12 lb/hr. Use the average manual arc on time of 20 minutes per/hr. The manual
MIG welder therefore deposits on average 4 lb/hr.
To deposit the 4 lb/hr
for the 550 lbs/ of weld will require 138 hrs of labor, (add 20% as a cusion). You now know on average
a manual MIG weld uses 10 cuft.hr of gas x 138 hrs requires 1380 cuft add 15%
as a cushion 1587 cuft. Each gas cylinder requires approx 300 cuft of gas = 6
cylinders per unit.
COST REDUCTION WITH CLADDING ON WATER WALL BOILER APPLICATIONS.
cost contribution to the power and waste management industry
Welding Services (WSI now Aquilex) is the largest power industry contractor in North America.
WSI is primarily involved in repairs and refurbishment in the power, waste energy
and nuclear industries. In terms of water wall cladding, WSI has clad approx.
80% of the North American boilers. Each year WSI can use approx one million pounds
625-622 and 300 series stainless MIG wires for cladding water wall
While WSI has produced some of the most innovative, automatic MIG
cladding equipment available in North America, WSI did not have a resident MIG
process control expert who had the expertise necessary to make the improvements
to it's traditional water wall clad MIG welds. Ed
was contracted for this work
by the WSI engineering manager. In less than
6 months, Ed not only dramatically
improved the water wall overlay weld quality but also reduced
the amount of costly overlay typically required by
As many in
the power industry are aware, with any cladding application "less weld and
less heat provides the best results. Apart from the high cost of >$20 lb for
the Inconel weld wires, the boilers operate more efficiently when the clad surface
is thinner and the clad weld pass thickness is uniform and with out defects.
water wall clad applications, the minimum, single pass
weld clad chemistry required is 20% Chrome. To attain
the minimum Chrome requirements the pulsed MIG weld procedures had to ensure the
weld dilution was less than 8%. The vertical down
welds not only have to attain minimum weld dilution with consistent weld fusion
on the carbon steel boiler tubes. The weld passes I developed were not only thinner
they also supplied an improved transition with the weld pass tie-ins. Of course
from a weld productivity perspective, the two gun weld procedure utilized, enabled
the single operator to deposit > 26 lbs/hr.
pulsed MIG clad weld mess found on boiler walls overlayed with 622 or stainless.
Miller pulsed equipment was being used for this manual touch up. Imagine the defects, the boiler deformation and stresses being applied as a result of poor weld practices allowed at this power plant.
|Ed's MIG clad patent produced welds 15 lb/hr with a smooth finish and
good blend ins. The clad results were similar to a laser / powder overlay.
MIG photo untouched and no weld cleaning except brushing was provided.
Clad welds on boilers, less is always better, unless you sell weld consumables.
water wall boiler longevity and weld cost benefits could be attained
for the power industry with WSI and Ed's new, "thinner"
single clad weld passes and unique
MIG procedures developed in 2005 - 2006.
vertical down 622 Inconel / stainless clad pulsed MIG welds were derived from
a low cost, six thousand dollar pulsed power source selected and re-programmed by Ed and a MIG gas mix also developed
by Ed. (See MIG gas data section). These clad welds required 28% less Inconel or stainless
per square foot of water wall weld.
The welds also required an engineering
manager that believed that there was more to MIG clad welding than asking the
advice of a Lincoln sales rep or a welder pulling a gun trigger and applying a weld mess. It also helped
that WSI had excellent, well designed, patented, automated weld equipment that compensated
for the curves (wire stick out voltage variations) when welding of the boiler
wall tubes. Ed's clad development was complete in 2006. WSI applied for the US
Patent during 2006 and the patent was approved in 2009. Visit the Clad
weld section for more info.
Pulsed MIG Clad Welds, lowest dilution with controled welds at 15 lb/hr.
Metric and Weld Deposition Rates.
Deposition Rates: = lb/hr x 0.4536 = kg/hr.
Weld Deposition Rates: = 1 lb/ft
x 1.49 = kg/m
Weld Deposition Rates: = Ib/in x 17.85 = kg/m.
Rates: = lb/min x 27.216 = kg/hr.
Weld Deposition Rates: kg/hr x 2.205 = lb/hr.
Gas Flow Rates.
cuft x 28.317 = liters
Flow 0.47195 liter/min = 1 cuft/hr.
cuft x 1728
= cubic inch.
cuft x 0.02832 = cubic meter.
cuft/hr x 0.4719 = liters/min
cuft/min x 28.31 = liters/min.
liters/min x 2.119 = cuft/hr.
x 0.002119 = cuft/hr.
cuft x 7.4805 = gal US.
liters x 0.03531 = cuft.
gal/hr x 0.06309 = liter/min
gal/hr x 0.13368 = cuft/hr
gal/min x 8.0208
gal/min x 3.785 = liter/min
gal x 3.785 = liter
x 127.13 =cuft/hr
Per inch = Volts x Amps x 60, Divide by weld speed ipm
Watt per meter kelvin
Heat input joules (j) energy J = watts/second
1 watt = 1 joule/sec
1 Kw/hr = 3,600,000
ft/ib = J x 1.356
1 joule = 0.73756 ft/ib.f
x 39.37 = j/m
j/m x 0.0254 = j/inch
kj/inch x 39.37 = kj/m
Btu x 1054.4
btu/lb x 2.326 = kj/kg
cal/g x 4.1868 = kj/kg
and Fracture Toughness.
Metric Meganewton meter MN.m-3/2
ksi.in 1/2 x 1.099 = MN.m-3/2
MN.m-3/2 x 0.910 = ksi/in ½
Metric and Electrode Force.
Newton = N
pound force x 4.448ton = newtons
kilogram force x 9.807 =
newton x 0.2248 = lbf
Metric and Area.
x 645.2 = mm/sq
mm/sq x 0.001550 = in/sq
in/sq x 6.451 = cm/sq
x 0.09290 = m/sq
Metric and Speed.
x 0.4233 mm/sec
mm/sec x 2.362 = ipm
in/sec x 0.0254 = m/sec
x 0.3048 = m/sec
ft/hr x 0.00008466 m/sec
ft/min x 0.00508 = m/sec
km/hr x 0.027777 = m/sec
mph x 1.609 = km/h
cm/sec x 1.9685 = ft/min
cm/sec x 0.32808 = ft/sec
m/sec x 196.85 = ft/min
= Joules = J
1 ft/lb = 1.355818 J
ft/lb x 0.13825728 = kg/m
x 16.387 = cu/cm
cu/in x 0.00057870 = cuft
cu/in x 0.000016387 = cu/m
cuft x 0.02831 = cu/m
cu/in x 16390.0 = cu/m
cu/cm x 0.000035315 = cuft
cu/cm x 0.061024 = cu/inch
cu/cm x 0.00026417 = gal US
cu/m x 35,315 =
cu/m x 0.00061`024 = cu/inch
liquid gallon to cu/m x 0.003785
Current Density Electrode
Area Square inch Divide by Weld Amp
Weld current density metric = amp per square
WIRE 0.030 area = 0.00071 in/sq
WIRE 0.8 mm area = 0.00458 cm/sq
WIRE 0.030 area = 0.00071 in/sq
WIRE 0.035 area = 0.00096 in/sq
area = 0.006193 cm/sq
WIRE 0.045 area = 0.00160 in/sq
WIRE 1.2mm area
= 0.1032 cm/sq
WIRE 0.062 area = 0.00307 in/sq
WIRE 1.6mm area = 0.0198
Metric and Length.
meter = 3.281 ft
1mm = 0.03937 inch
1inch x 25.4mm
mm x 0.03937 =
1 meter x 39.370 inch
ft x 304.8 = mm
mm x 0.003281 = ft
ft x 0.3048 = meter
yard x 0.9144 = meter
Metric and Weight.
x 0.02834 = kg
lb x 0.4535 = kg
Short ton 2000 lb x 907 = kg
ton 2240 lb x 1016 = kg
Tensile strength x 1000 = ksi
I MPa = 145.03 psi
kPa = 0.14503 psi
psi = 0.00689 MPa
x 0.145 = ksi.
psi x 6894.575 = Pa
kPa x 0.1451 = psi
psi x 0.068948
psi x 6894.8 = newtons/sqm
1 psi = 0.0068 MPa
1 bar x 100000
ksi x 6.894 = MPa
Pa x 0.000145 = psi
lb/sqft x 4.788 = Pa
N/sqmm x 1000000 = Pa
Pa x 0.000145 = psi
Pa x 0.02089 = psi.
0.02068 = lb/sqft
Pa x 0.000001 N/sqmm
bar = 14.5 psi
ksi x 6.894757
psi x 0.006894 = MPa
those weld costs down and you will be able to purchase that vacation Penthouse for your wiife.
all the MIG and flux cored Best Weld Practices
and Weld Process Control Programs
at this Site.
E-Mail Ed. email@example.com.
For phone weld resolutions call Ed
at 828 337 2695.
Ed's Robot and Manual Process Control Training resources.