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Order these MIG Welding or Flux Cored Training Materials Now




     
 
ED CRAIG. www.weldreality.com.

The world's largest website on MIG - Flux Cored - TIG Welding


Weld Costs and Metric Weld Conversions.

Advanced TIP TIG Welding
TIP TIG Welding is always better quality than TIG and 100 to 500% faster with superior quality than TIG - MIG - FCAW.

 
 
   




Written by Ed Craig. www.weldreality.com.
Contact Ed. EMail ecraig@weldreality.com.




WELCOME TO ED'S SIMPLIFICATION OF MIG
& FLUX CORED WELDING COSTS.




Followed by Metric Weld Conversion Data.





What's the actual weld cost per part?



MIG & Flux Cored WELD COSTS:

You may not want to walk into a welding shop, examine that very common 1/4 (6 mm) MIG or flux cored fillet weld, and then ask the shop manager
or supervisor, what does one meter of that fillet
weld cost?


Its difficult in the global weld industry to find weld
personnel that have full control or completely
understand the weld costs.

The majority of manufacturing mangers or supervisors will know the cost of the weld wire or gas,
few will be aware of their MIG and Flux Cored weld deposition potentials or the hourly deposition rates being achieved by the welders or robots they walk by each day.





 

When there is global empathy towards weld personnel "playing around with MIG & Flux Cored weld controls, and it's difficult to find weld managers or supervisors that understand the real weld costs, you know something has to change:

My low cost, best practices - process control resources simplify this.

 


WHAT HAVE SHIP YARDS AND CAR PLANTS OFTEN GOT IN COMMON?

THE BAD NEWS: These are two dinosaur industries in which weld best practices are almost none existant, and weld process ignorance and hands off management / engineering has led to a weld shop culture in which the paitents are running the hospital, change is the most difficult thing to implement and the weld costs are typically out of control.

THE GOOD NEWS: In the above enviroment there is always great opportunity for weld quality - productivity improvements with tremendous weld cost savings..










2007 WELD REALITY:
WITH WELD REWORK DOLLAR COST PER-SHIP, FREQUENTLY MEASURED IN THE MILLIONS, THE MAJORITY OF SHIP YARDS HAVE NOT ESTABLISHED BEST MIG / FLUX CORED WELD PRACTICES AND PROVIDED THEIR EMPLOYEES WITH MIG AND FLUX CORED WELD PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING:

IT'S EASY TO GENERATE MULTI-MILLION DOLLAR COST SAVINGS IN
A SHIP YARD:
During the first four months of 2007, Ed presented his unique, manual, flux cored process control training programs to Aker Kvaerner. Aker is an international ship builder located at the the Philadelphia Naval Ship Yard.

The 300 plus welders in the yard used E71T-1 (1.2 mm) flux cored wires to weld all position, vee groove, 12 to 25mm, steel joints with ceramic backing.


Like any ship yard, the Aker weld focus was on SMAW welder "skills".
To work at the yard, the welders had to pass an all position, flux cored weld qualification tests and weld in accordance with the ABS and the pre-qualified weld procedures.

WELD LOGIC & WELD REALITY IS USUALLY IN
SHORT SUPPLY AT MANY SHIP YARDS.

The flux cored weld test and welder qualification test was nothing more than a chance for the welders to put the weld in then grind the weld out. The test also had little in common with the weld requirements and application variables typically found in any ship yard.

To show the management what an important missing link was, I provided a fundamental written process control weld test for all those involved. This test reveal that all those who passed the welder qualification test, lacked flux cored weld process / consumable expertise and lacked the awareness of the unique requirements to attain consistent optimum weld quality for vee groove, ceramic backed welds. This is common in every global ship yard and especially common in Naval ship yards. Ships yards pay a price for process ignorance and at Aker that weld rework costs per-ship was approx. eigtht miillion dollars per-oit tanker.


The training program
I provided focussed on flux cored Weld Process Controls,consumable knowledge and optimum weld process best practices and techniques nevessay for all position, vee groove welds with ceramic backing.

In a time of MIG - flux cored and TIG welder shortage, when many companies find it difficult to interrupt their daily fire quenching, management take note. Ed's unique weld process training program required only eight hours, four hours classroom and four hours hands on. In a few weeks the training for the 300 plus welders was complete and
the ship yard QA department personnel started to analyze the results.

I CAN NEVER UNDERSTAND THE QA PHILOSPHY THATS PREVELENT IN TODAY'S GLOBAL WELD SHOPS. THESE SHOPS FREELY SPEND MONEY ON QA DEPARTMENT AND PERSONNEL WHO'S GOAL IN LIFE IS TO FIND DEFECTS AFTER THE WELDS ARE COMPLETE. I WOULD RATHER RUN A WELD SHOP IN WHICH THOSE THAT PRODUCE WELDS ARE GIVEN THE PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING NECESSARY TO PREVENT WELD DEFECTS.


Three months after Ed's flux cored weld process control the training, the ship yard NDT results indicated a 50%
reduction in the required weld rework per-ship. The ship yard management reported that the reduced weld rework, labor and NDT costs, would resulted in a cost savings of approx. 4 million dollars per-ship.


THE COST BENEFITS FROM HIGH IMPACT, ONE DAY BEST PRACTICES - PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING:


Examine the real world ship yard weld cost reduction and benefits from my unique flux cored process control training program. The training program required 300 x 8 man/hr. = 2400 man hours at an approx. $30/hr, base labor cost for the ship yard. $72,000. For the training. To this add the actual training costs of approx. $100,000 = for a total training costs for the 300 welders. Total Train cost, $172,000.



With a $172K invested the ship yard saved approx. four million dollars per-ship. An unreported fact from this yard was the changes that Ed also established in the development of new weld procedures. The increased flux cored wire feed rates, (weld deposition rates) in the new procedures increased the daily weld productivity per-man in a range from 20 to 40%.



Some of you may wonder what's the difference between this type of weld training program and the MIG and flux cored weld training you could expect in any North American, Korean, Chinese, Japanese, European ship yard or any manufacturing facility?

For decades conventional training in ship yards, Navy yards and manufacturing plants has focussed on the "welders skills", especially on stick welding skills which has nothing in common with the requirements for MIG or flux cored weld.

It's not unusual for weld personnel to have weeks of hands on MIG and flux cored welder training at the ship yards and then find that when it comes to MIG and flux cored welds, the welders will;


[a] Play with the MIG weld equipment controls and rarely dial in optimum settings for the different welds.

[b] Utilize the weld controls in a very limited manner. In the ship yards I visted it was common to find the welders would all use one setting for all welds. (its enough to make a grown man cry).

[c] Not utilize the optimum best practices - weld techniques necessary for the MIG and flux cored process.
Typically innapropriate stick weld techniques were common with the MIG and flux cored process.

[d] Lack awareness of the weld deposition rate potential for a specific weld and the parameters selected. This of course limits the daily weld productivity potential the welders could
achieve.

The Flux cored and MIG process control training
I provide, is available in CD format. As with all
my training programs, the training enables each individual to achieve
weld process optimization
for the flux cored consumables utilized and for
the all position, vee groove, ceramic backed, or open root applications.

For the welders who took the eight 8 hour training, program the simple clock method enabled thoseindividuals to have the ability to instantly set optimum parameters for the consumable, and weld joint variables which in the yard were many. The training provides instant dramatic improvements in their weld ability as you can see with this before and after weld.

As you can see, on the left picture we have a weld made by a so called qualified welder that obviously had poor weld skills, poor techniques and poor settings. These two vertical up, 15 mm vee groove, ceramic backed weld samples, using E71T-1 flux cored wires and straight CO2, were made by the same welder on the day of training. On the left before, the training and on the right after the 8 hours of best practice - process control training.

Even when the welder had good skills, process control training will increase the welders weld quality and productivity capability. What was also important, each welder became aware of the unique flux cored weld parameters and technique requirements to address the variable edge preps and root gaps over the ceramic. Ceramic is rarely used outside ship yards and welding oversized root gaps across a none conductive ceramic requires unique process and technique requirements. The weld training results were dramatic, with all weld personne
l attaining an instant reduction in lack of weld fusion, slag entrapment and porosity defects.

Training. 2400 hours at $172.000 versus 12000 hrs and $500,000 costs

The improvements by all the welders was immediately noticed by the ship yard QA management who daily measured the dramatic improvements evident with NDT and radiographs and the allocated man hours required for weld rework .
By the way, few global ship yards or manufacturing facilities examine the cost effectiveness of the training programs they develop. Instead of an eight hour training program, many yards would not think twice about providing a forty hour welder training program. For 300 welders in a North American facility, that 40 hours training with labor and associated training costs would be approx. $500,000. Plus the facility will have lost 12000 production hours.




Many thanks to some
Tom O'Malley the owner of Excell. Tom's company was the prime weld products supplier to the Philadelphia Naval Ship yard. Tom provided the facilities and equipment for the training. Tom also assisted with the program in both the classroom and hands on training. Tom was one of those rare owners of a weld supply company that actually spends many hours per-week evaluating weld processes equipment and consumables.



"There is one way to quickly attain Best Weld Practices and Weld Process Control Expertise". I took over 2000 hours to develop the MIG and Flux Cored weld best practices - process control programs. They are available in CD Power Point format.







ROBOTS AND WELD COSTS ....When a manufacturing company invests in costly robots and fixtures, the robot purchase is in most instances intended to reduce the costs of manual weld production. The sad reality with many companies, is their robots rarely provide their real weld their production potential and too many robot welds require extensive manual weld repairs.


The prime factors that control the robot weld production efficiency potential are;

[1] optimizing the robot wire feed rates utilized,

[2] controlling the part fit,

[3] controlling the weld size and length,

[4] optimizing the robot movement / motion times,

[5] maintaining the robot arc on times,

[6] eliminating the causes of the robot down time,

[7] eliminating the robot weld rework.


The primary influence on robot weld efficiency is the required robot “arc on time” a time regulated by the wire feed rate attained. The wire feed rate controls the robot weld speed.

It's unfortunate that some Japanese robots do not provide the robot wire feed rates. These robots will have the robot programmer select "weld amps". I have been in numerous Panasonic robot weld cells and the companies do not have a clue as to the weld wire feed rates produced. So much for manufacturing and Japanese focus on weld productivity.

To control MIG weld costs, someone in the plant has to understand the relationship between the desired welds, the weld wire size, the wire feed rates and weld deposition attained. This process subject is part of the fundamental weld process expertise that should be common knowledge in all plants that MIG and flux cored weld.

 



The following book and CD training resources developed by Ed, provide the manual and robot process control data that all engineers, managers, supervisors and technicians need to control
weld costs:

 

 

ASK A WELD SHOP SUPERVISOR THE COST OF A MIG WELD AND THEY WILL TELL YOU THEY DON'T KNOW, BUT THEY WILL TELL YOU THE COST OF THE WELD WIRE OR GAS.


Weld process control and consumable knowledge is the key component to implementing effective BEST WELD PRACTICES - WELD PROCESS CONTROLS. This sounds logical, yet few managers and engineers have this expertise. If a manufacturing facility if the key management dont know what it takes for process optimization they will not demand it from the people who should be responsible.


To effectively manage a weld shop and maximize the daily robot weld quality and productivity, management, supervisors and engineers must provide their employees with a weld process control training program that provides;


[a] MAXIMUM WELD PRODUCTIVITY POTENTIAL WITH LOWEST WELD COSTS: To minimize weld costs, those that make the weld decisions must understand the weld process fundamentals that focus on the application's weld deposition rate potential for the part thickness, the weld size, the wire size and weld transfer mode utilized.

[b] OPTIMUM WELD QUALITY POTENTIAL:
To consistently optimize weld quality, the weld decision maker must without getting advice from a salesman, fully understand the process, the weld mode, parameters, techniques and consumable requirements necessary. .

[C] WELD PROCESS CONTROLS: Once any production weld is established, that weld needs to be managed through the implimentation of weld process controls. If you work in a weld shop in which weld personnel "play around" with their weld controls, how can you considers your organization to be professional when the welds are being produced by
semi-skilled personnel. You know what the welders need, provide it.


IF THEY ARE NOT CONTROLLONG BOTH WELD QUALITY AND COST, WHAT IS THE
PURPOSE OF A WELD MANAGER, ENGINEER, TECHNICIAN OR SUPERVISOR?


This week in the global weld industry, its unlikely you will find one manager in a hundred who takes the time to have a discussion with their employees on the subject of controlling the weld department costs.

The weld reality is most weld supervisors are more interested in ensuring the weld personnel are not hiding in the wash room, than in how to minimize their weld rework or maximize the daily weld deposition rates.

While weld cost focus is too often on weld consumable costs, the MIG / flux cored wire and gas typically account for only 12 to 16% of the total cost of a carbon steel weld.


 

HOW CAN ANY WELD MANGER, ENGINEER, SUPERVISOR OR TECHNICIAN, BE PROUD TO WORK IN AN ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THE WELD PERSONNEL DAILY PLAY AROUND" WITH THEIR WELD CONTROLS?


He is the robot weld supervisor at GM, we have to
cut out his "play around organ"

 

 

The first step in controlling MIG weld costs is understand the "wire feed control".

 

USING MY UNIQUE, SIMPLE WELD CLOCK CONTROL METHOD, WELD PROCESS CONTROL IS MADE EASY. WITH A TRADITIONAL "NONE DIGITAL" WIRE FEED CONTROL SIMPLY DIVIDE THE CONTROL INTO TEN CLOCK SETTINGS BETWEEN 7 AND 5 O'CLOCK.

EACH WIRE FEED TURN DELIVERS APPROXIMATELY 70 in./min PER WIRE FEED TURN. IN EUROPE I USE TWO METERS PER TURN

WITH AN 0.035 (1mm) STEEL OR STAINLESS WIRE, EACH WIRE FEED TURN WILL DELIVER 1.1 POUNDS PER TURN: SET THE WIRE FEED CONTROL AT THE 3 O'CLOCK POSITION, EIGTH TURN AND THE WIRE FEEDER DELIVERS 8 TO 9 LB/HR...


 

With the 0.045 (1.2 mm) wire, each wire feed turn is approx. 2 lb/hr. Using a standard, ”none digital” wire feeder, to set a low spray setting,set the wire feed at the 12 o'clock position. 12 o'clock is the fifth turn. 5 x 70 = 350 inch/min.This wire feed position with the 0.045 (1.2 mm) wire would deliver approximately 10 lbs/hr.

The robot set at 350 inch/min has an arc on time of 30 minutes per/hr, so the robot uses 5 lbs/ of wire per hour, or 40 lb per-shift. Lets say this application could be welded with another turn 12 lb/hr, the robot weld time would be reduced by 20%. Are you getting how easy the weld clock method is?


Check out Ed's unique, simple weld clock process control method, it's in his CD training resources and process control books. Ed spent 30 years on simplifying the MIG/MAG flux cored processes and you know how important the KIS principle is to a weld shop. This method is easy to teach, because it’s easy to remember.


ROBOTS AND MANUAL WELD QUALITY:
T
he number one controlling factor of setting optimum quality MIG welds for any weld weld transfer mode is to understand where you set the MIG wire feed setting.

ROBOTS AND AND WELD COSTS:
The number one method of controlling MIG and flux cored weld costs is understanding the relationship between wire feed setting and the weld deposition rate attained.

The majority of welds produced daily in the industrial world are based on three simple fillet weld sizes. 3/16 - 1/4 - 5/16 (4 - 6 - 8 mm). Is it therefore reasonable to expect that all the weld personnel at your company should be aware of the optimum wire feed settings and weld deposition rate potential for these weld sizes?



HOW CAN COSTS BE IN CONTROL WHEN THE PROCESS FUNDAMENTALS ARE MISSING?

THE MOST COMMON MIG WELD IS A 1/4 (6 mm) FILLET.
The welds are made with 0.045 (1.2 mm) wire. For decades, on the
conventional MIG wire feeders, the manual welders may place a scratch or pen mark at the one o'clock position. In an other area
of the shop the the new digital feeders are set at 420 inch/min,
(10.5 m/min). Over in the robot cell that 1/4 fillet weld data is also
set at 4 20 inch /min.

You could ask three of the most experienced weld personnel in
your organization, what weld deposition rate per/hr is achieved
with the wire feed set at 420 inch/min and would we be better of with an 0.052 (1.4 mm) wire set at 350 inch/min? Dont bother emailing me their confused replies.

Now ask yourself, when are you going to get serious about being in the welding business? When are you going to get a grip of weld costs? When are you going to arrange weld process control training for the employees?

MY PROCESS CONTROL BOOKS AND CD'S SIMPLIFY THE TASK OF ASSOCIATING WIRE FEED SETTINGS WITH WELD WIRES / WELD SIZES AND WELD DEPOSITION RATES. USE THESE RESOURCES OR MY ROBOT WELD PROCESS CONTROL TRAINING PROGRAMS TO BE A PROFESSIONAL AT WHAT YOU DO AND TAKE YOUR ORGANIZATION UP A NOTCH.




Working out Weld Costs:

WELD DEPOSITION RATES:
In the following example MIG welding 24 parts an hour, the parts are made out of 7 mm carbon steel. We learn from the clock method that the average weld deposition rate attained by the welder to spray transfer the 6 mm fillet weld when using an 0.045 (1.2mm) wire, is approx. 9 lb/hr (4.5kg/hr). Remember weld deposition rates drive weld costs.

THE MIG WIRE COSTS: If the manual MIG welders arc on time per-hour is 20 minutes, the welder on average deposits 3 lb/hr. The carbon steel, MIG wire cost $1 per/lb. The hourly MIG wire cost $3 an hour.



MIG WELD COSTS: The argon CO2 cylinder mix was $40.00 per-cylinder. A typical full size gas cylinder will deliver on average approximately 300 cuft. The cylinder gas cost is 13 cents per-cubic foot.

The MIG gas flow rate per/hour is 30 cuft/hr. The welder average an arc on time of 20 minutes per hour results in a gas use of 10 cuft/hr. 10 cuft x 13 cents = a MIG gas cost of $1.30 an hour.




MIG WELD LABOR COSTS: The average, 2013 hourly "welder's wage" in the USA is a sad $13 an hour, with benefits it’s approx. $18 - $20 an hour. Note; some companies when trying to evaluate welding costs, like to add the total white collar overhead including the kitchen sink and the coffee machines on the backs of the blue collar labor costs. In weld cost calculations this overhead is an unnecessary distraction to the real world weld cost formula.



With an overhead of $20 / hr, plus $3 / hr for wire and $1.30 hr for weld gas, the total hourly cost per MIG welder is $24 hour. Producing welds at 3 lb/hr results in a weld cost per pound of weld metal deposited at $8 per/lb. Producing 24 parts an hour, weld cost per part is a $1.



Please note: If you cannot work out weld costs in your head, you are not in control of your welds or your weld costs. An engineer, manager or supervisor who had utilized my process control CDs or books would be aware that for the 6 mm fillet weld, the welders could increase their wire feed control to readily attain a weld deposition rate of 12 lb/hr (5.4 kg/hr).


The 25% an hour increase in weld deposition allowed 25% more parts per-hour. Weld productivity increases from 24 to 30 parts. With the 12 lb/hr deposition, the 20-minute arc on time results in a weld deposition rate of 4 lb/hr (1.8 kg/hr). The overhead costs are increased by a dollar for the extra one pound of wire utilized. Labor, weld wire and gas therefore cost $25 Divide the $25 by 30 parts and you have approximately $0.83 per - part for a saving of 0.17 cents (17 %) per-part, all from weld process (deposition) awareness, and simple single turn of the wire feed control knob.



WELD PROCESS KNOWLEGE PAYS IN MANY WAYS:

A simple turn of the MIG wire feed control, a change in wire diameter or a change from the short circuit mode to globular, or fa change rom globular to spray or from pulsed to spray, and most weld shops, can typically reduce their weld costs in the range of 20 to 50%.


When weld management and supervision focus on weld process capability, wire feed rates and weld deposition rate potential, this will typically ensure dramatic weld cost reduction, however this is not likely to happen with any weld shop that allows "play around" MIG / Flux cored control employees.

To make weld process changes, requires weld personnel have process confidence. This is one good reason to think a little less about spending thousands on over priced pulsed MIG welding equipment and a little more about investing a few hundred dollars for providing Ed's MIG process-training CDs.


Quoting on this manual MIG weld trailer job was simple.


Five hundred trailers were required by the Smith Alloy Corporation. Each trailer had a total of forty feet (12 m) of 1/4 (6mm) fillet weld. The MIG weld wire used was an E70S-3. The wire size 0.045 (1.2 mm). The cylinder weld gas, argon - 15% CO2.

The company that got the contract to build the trailers had five MIG welders who each work an 8-hour day. The welder labor overhead was $25 an hour. How long will it take to complete the job and what will be the welding cost?


Using my robot and manual MIG weld process control training resources this is how you would take 8 simple steps to approach this task.

[1] How much MIG weld wire is required? The 1/4 (6mm) fillet requires 0.11 lbs of weld per foot of weld. That's 0.11 x 40 feet = 4.4 lbs of filler metal required per trailer x trailers = 2.200 pounds of MIG wire for all the trailers.

[2] How much will the weld wire cost? The 0.045 filler metal cost $0.90 cents / lb x 4.4 lbs/part = $3.96 weld wire costs per trailer, or the wire cost for 500 trailers is $1980.00.


[3] How many man-hours are required? Using my simple weld clock parameter method, you would be aware of where the welders will have to set the 0.045 wire feed to weld the 6 mm fillet and that the weld deposition rate would be approx. 12 lb/hr. However the manual arc on time per/hr for the average welders is only 20 minutes. The welders deposited approximately 4 pounds per/hr. The 500 trailers will use 2200 pounds, divide by the 4 lb/hr, the welding job will require
550 man hours.

[4] The weld gas costs, and how many cylinders required? A cylinder of argon CO2 costs $40 cyl. The cyl contains 330 cuft ($0.12 per cu/ft). The gas flow is 30 cuft/hr but the welders arc on time is 20 min, so the gas used is only 10 cuft/hr x 0.12 cents = $1.20 / hr for the gas. The job requires 550 hrs x $1.20 = $660 for the gas, (550 hrs x 10 cuft = 5500 cuft divide by a cyl 330 cuft = 17-18 cylinders required for the project.

[5] The total weld consumables cost per trailer: The cost of consumables for the job is weld wire $1980, + gas $660, = $2640 divide by 500 trailers or consumable costs $5.28 per trailer.

[6] The labor cost per / trailer. The cost of labor is 550 man hours required x $25/hr = $13.750 for the 500 trailers or labor cost per trailer $27.50.


[7] Total weld cost per trailer is $5.28 for consumables + $27.50 for labor = $33 per trailer.


[8] The time required to weld all the parts. The time required to do the job with 5 welders (40 hour / day). The job requires 550 man/hours divide by 40 requires 14 days.

 

Ed has a point. The bottom line, this weld cost approach is simple. Last time I saw Miller, or was it the Licoln or Hobart rep? I asked for a manual weld cost analysis, these guys used a computer and delivered pages of confusing weld cost data. Now I have finally got down to figuring out the real costs of the manual MIG welds, I will see if we can do anything about weld cost reduction by using robots.

For those individuals making "weld cost decisions" or "weld process control" decisions. consider Ed's process control CD training programs for either MIG and flux cored



ROBOT WELD TRAILER COSTS: For those interested in how the manual trailer weld costs are reduced using a robot for welding the 500 trailers, scroll down.


Quoting the trailer job using a Robot is simple.

We will now quote the trailer welds using a robot. Each of the 500 trailers has forty feet (12 m) of 1/4 (6mm) fillet weld. We arel welding with an 0.045 (1.2 mm) MIG wire, and an argon - 15% CO2 cylinder mix.

We will use one robot with two operators. One robot operator works days, the other is on the afternoon shift. The weld labor overhead is $25/hr. How long will it take to complete the job with robot? What's the weld cost per-part? How will the cost compare to the above manual welding operation?

 

USING THE EIGHT STEP METHOD FOR THE ROBOT COSTS:

[1] How much weld wire required? A 1/4 (6mm) fillet requires approx. 0.11 lbs per foot of weld x 40 feet = 4.4 lbs of filler metal required per part x 500 = 2.200 lbs of MIG wire required.

[2] How much will the weld wire cost? The 0.045 filler metal cost $0.90 cents/lb x 4.4 lbs/part = $3.96 per part, or the MIG wire cost for 500 parts is $1980.00.

[3] How many robot / man hours required?

Using my clock parameter method (wire feed set at 1 o'clock which is the sixth turn 6 x 70 =420 IPM) 6 x 2 + 12lb/hr) you would know the robot is set to deposit the 0.045 wire feed at a weld deposition rate of 12 lb/hr. However in contrast to the manual welders, the robots weld faster and the arc on time per/hr is increased to 40 minutes per-hour. With the increased arc on time the robot deposits 8 pounds per/hr for two shifts. The two shifts (16 hrs a day x 8 lbs / hr = 128 lbs per day). The 500 parts require 2200 pounds of weld metal, divide by the 8 lb/hr deposited the job will require 275 man hours. (Its actually less when you look into the weld speed benefits, however I havet to save something for my process control weld books, right).




For the 500 welded parts, the robot with the increased arc on time will require 275 man hours. The manual welding job as discussed required 550 man hours for the same application .



[4] The robot gas costs and how many cylinders required?
A cylinder of argon - CO2 costs $40 cyl. The cylinder contains 330 cuft ($0.12 per cu/foot). The gas flow is 30 cuft/hr, however the robot's arc on time is 40 min, so the gas used is 20 cuft/hr x 0.12 cents = $2.40/ hr for the gas. The job requires 275 hrs x $2.40 = $660 for the gas. As the robot weld speeds will be approx 20% quicker with the robot you can expect a 20% reduction in the weld gas cost. Gas cost $528

[5] The total consumable cost: The cost of consumables for the job, MIG wire $1980, + gas $528, = $2508 divide by 500 trailers or $5 per part.

[6] The labor cost per trailer. The cost of labor is 275 robot / man
x $25/hr = $6.875.00 or labor per trailer is $13.75.

[7] Total weld cost per trailer. $13.75 labor = $5 consumables = $18.75

[8] The Costs.The robot costs for welding the trailers was $6.875.00. The manual labor costs for the same parts was $13.750.00.

The total manual MIG weld cost per trailer was $32.78. Using a robot for the trailer reduced the manual MIG weld costs from $27.50 to $18.75 per trailer.


 

:

 

HOW DO I KNOW HOW MUCH WELD WIRE TO ORDER FOR A WELD JOB?

First determine the average fillet or groove weld size. Use the following guidelines, and when you come to the final MIG weld wire amount add 10% as a cushion factor. If you are going to use flux cored wires add 20% to the MIG wire recommendations. For the metric users, 1 lb / ft of weld to 1 kg/m, x 1.488.


The following is the approximate amount of MIG filler metal required per foot of weld. All the weld cost data you need for any MIG or FCAW application can be found in my "Management Engineers Guide To MIG" book. and in the process control training resources



CARBON STEEL or STAINLESS WELD WIRE REQUIRED PER FOOT OF WELD:

A 1/8 ( 3 mm fillet requires 0.03 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.

A 1/4 (6 mm fillet requires 0.11 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.

A 3/8 (9 mm fillet requires 0.29 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.

A 1/2 (13mm fillet requires 0.42 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.

A 3/4 (19mm fillet requires 1.09 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.

A 1" (25mm fillet requires 1.80 lbs of weld wire per foot of weld.

A 3/8 (9 mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 0.55 lb/per foot

A 1/2 (13mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 0.85 lb/per foot

A 1/2 (13mm butt 60 degree Single vee 3/8 root 1.4 lb/per foot

A 3/4 (19mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 1.64 lb/per foot

A 3/4 (19mm butt 60 degree Single vee 3/8 root 2.3 lb/per foot

A 1" (25mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 2.67 lb/per foot

A 1" (25mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/2 root 4 lb/per foot

A 2" (50mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 9.6 lb/per foot

A 3" (75mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 20 lb/per foot

A 4" (100mm butt 60 degree Single vee 1/8 root 36 lb/per foot



ALUMINUM HOW MANY POUNDS OF WIRE REQUIRED?

Aluminum 1/8 3.2 mm fillet = 0.092 lb/ft 0.03 kg/m

Aluminum 3/16 4.8 mm fillet = 0.026 lb/ft 0.04 kg/m

Aluminum 1/4 6.4 mm fillet = 0.05 lb/ft 0.07 kg/m

Aluminum 3/8 9.5 mm fillet = 0.06 lb/ft 0.09 kg/m

Aluminum butt weld 13 mm plate 60 degree single V = 0.3 lb/ft 0.43kg/m

Aluminum butt weld 18 mm plate 60 degree single V = 0.4 lb/ft 0.66kg/m

Aluminum butt weld 25 mm plate 60 degree single V = 0.82 LB/FT 1.2kg/m

Aluminum butt weld 38 mm plate 60 degree single V 1.7 lb/ft 2.6 kg/m

Aluminum butt weld 50 mm plate 60 degre single V 2.8 lb/ft 4.2 kg/m



ALUMINUM "ipm" FEED RATE TO WELD DEPOSITION RATE:

030 0.8 mmwire, ipm x 0.004 = lb/hr

035 0.9 mmwire, ipm x 0.0056 - l/hr

046 1.2mm wire, ipm x 0.0099 = lb/hr

052 1.4mm wire, ipm x 0.012 = lb/hr

062 1.6mm wire, ipm x 0.017 = lb/hr

093 2.4mm wire, ipm x 0.0415 = lb/hr.



ALUMINUM "m/min"FEED RATE TO WELD DEPOSITION RATE:

0.8mm wire, m/min x 0.07 = kg/hr

1 mm wire, m/min x 0.09 = kg/hr

1.2 mm wire, m/min x 0.16 = kg/hr

1.4 mm wire, m/min x 0.23 = kg/hr

1.6 mm wire, m/min x 0.306 = kg/hr

2.4 mm wire, m/min x 0.74 = kg/hr.



This structural steel company wants to MIG weld 5 bridge structures. Each structure has approximately 5000 feet of 1/4 fillet welds. The welders will use 0.045 MIG wire. The manager wants a quick quote on the following.

[a] How much weld wire required?

[b] How much weld gas required?

[c] how many man hours to weld?

The above table tells you that a 1/4 6 mm fillet requires 0.11 lb/foot of weld. 5000 feet x 0.11 requires 550 pounds of weld metal. Add 15% for cushion factor.

Use my clock method to determine that the spray setting will deposit for this application 12 lb/hr. Use the average manual arc on time of 20 minutes per/hr. The manual MIG welder therefore deposits on average 4 lb/hr.

To deposit the 4 lb/hr for the 550 lbs/ of weld will require 138 hrs of labor, (add 20% as a cusion). You now know on average a manual MIG weld uses 10 cuft.hr of gas x 138 hrs requires 1380 cuft add 15% as a cushion 1587 cuft. Each gas cylinder requires approx 300 cuft of gas = 6 cylinders per unit.

 



ED'S WELD COST REDUCTION WITH CLADDING ON WATER WALL BOILER APPLICATIONS.


Ed's cost contribution to the power and waste management industry



2007: Welding Services (WSI now Aquilex) is the largest power industry contractor in North America. WSI is primarily involved in repairs and refurbishment in the power, waste energy and nuclear industries. In terms of water wall cladding, WSI has clad approx. 80% of the North American boilers. Each year WSI can use approx one million pounds of Inconel
625-622 and 300 series stainless MIG wires for cladding water wall tubes.

While WSI has produced some of the most innovative, automatic MIG cladding equipment available in North America, WSI did not have a resident MIG process control expert who had the expertise necessary to make the improvements to it's traditional water wall clad MIG welds. Ed
was contracted for this work by the WSI engineering manager. In less than
6 months, Ed not only dramatically improved the water wall overlay weld quality but also reduced the amount of costly overlay typically required by
> 28%.

As many in the power industry are aware, with any cladding application "less weld and less heat provides the best results. Apart from the high cost of >$20 lb for the Inconel weld wires, the boilers operate more efficiently when the clad surface is thinner and the clad weld pass thickness is uniform and with out defects.

With water wall clad applications, the minimum, single pass weld clad chemistry required is 20% Chrome. To attain the minimum Chrome requirements the pulsed MIG weld procedures had to ensure the weld dilution was less than 8%. The vertical down welds not only have to attain minimum weld dilution with consistent weld fusion on the carbon steel boiler tubes. The weld passes I developed were not only thinner they also supplied an improved transition with the weld pass tie-ins. Of course from a weld productivity perspective, the two gun weld procedure utilized, enabled the single operator to deposit > 26 lbs/hr.







Traditional pulsed MIG clad weld mess found on boiler walls overlayed with 622 or stainless. Miller pulsed equipment was being used for this manual touch up. Imagine the defects, the boiler deformation and stresses being applied as a result of poor weld practices allowed at this power plant.



 
Ed's MIG clad patent produced welds 15 lb/hr with a smooth finish and
good blend ins. The clad results were similar to a laser / powder overlay.

Note: MIG photo untouched and no weld cleaning except brushing was provided.


With Clad welds on boilers, less is always better, unless you sell weld consumables.




Tremendous water wall boiler longevity and weld cost benefits could be attained for the power industry with WSI and Ed's new, "thinner" single clad weld passes and unique MIG procedures developed in 2005 - 2006.



The vertical down 622 Inconel / stainless clad pulsed MIG welds were derived from a low cost, six thousand dollar pulsed power source selected and re-programmed by Ed and a MIG gas mix also developed by Ed. (See MIG gas data section). These clad welds required 28% less Inconel or stainless per square foot of water wall weld.

The welds also required an engineering manager that believed that there was more to MIG clad welding than asking the advice of a Lincoln sales rep or a welder pulling a gun trigger and applying a weld mess. It also helped that WSI had excellent, well designed, patented, automated weld equipment that compensated for the curves (wire stick out voltage variations) when welding of the boiler wall tubes. Ed's clad development was complete in 2006. WSI applied for the US Patent during 2006 and the patent was approved in 2009. Visit the Clad weld section for more info.





Pulsed MIG Clad Welds, lowest dilution with controled welds at 15 lb/hr.

 


METRIC WELD TABLES:




Metric and Weld Deposition Rates.

Weld Deposition Rates: = lb/hr x 0.4536 = kg/hr.
Weld Deposition Rates: = 1 lb/ft x 1.49 = kg/m
Weld Deposition Rates: = Ib/in x 17.85 = kg/m.
Weld Deposition Rates: = lb/min x 27.216 = kg/hr.
Weld Deposition Rates: kg/hr x 2.205 = lb/hr.



Metric and Gas Flow Rates.

Flow cuft x 28.317 = liters
Flow 0.47195 liter/min = 1 cuft/hr.
cuft x 1728 = cubic inch.
cuft x 0.02832 = cubic meter.
cuft/hr x 0.4719 = liters/min
cuft/min x 28.31 = liters/min.
liters/min x 2.119 = cuft/hr.
cu/meters/min x 0.002119 = cuft/hr.
cuft x 7.4805 = gal US.
liters x 0.03531 = cuft.
gal/hr x 0.06309 = liter/min
gal/hr x 0.13368 = cuft/hr
gal/min x 8.0208 = cu/ft/hr.
gal/min x 3.785 = liter/min
gal x 3.785 = liter
liters/sec x 127.13 =cuft/hr


Metric and Thermal Conductivity.

 

Joules Per inch = Volts x Amps x 60, Divide by weld speed ipm
Watt per meter kelvin w/m.k
Heat input joules (j) energy J = watts/second
1 watt = 1 joule/sec
1 Kw/hr = 3,600,000
ft/ib = J x 1.356
1 joule = 0.73756 ft/ib.f
j/inch x 39.37 = j/m
j/m x 0.0254 = j/inch
kj/inch x 39.37 = kj/m
Btu x 1054.4 = joules
btu/lb x 2.326 = kj/kg
cal/g x 4.1868 = kj/kg



Metric and Fracture Toughness.


Metric Meganewton meter MN.m-3/2
ksi.in 1/2 x 1.099 = MN.m-3/2
MN.m-3/2 x 0.910 = ksi/in ½



Metric and Electrode Force.

 

Metric Newton = N
pound force x 4.448ton = newtons
kilogram force x 9.807 = newtons
newton x 0.2248 = lbf

 


Metric and Area.

in/sq x 645.2 = mm/sq
mm/sq x 0.001550 = in/sq
in/sq x 6.451 = cm/sq
ft/sq x 0.09290 = m/sq



Metric and Speed.

ipm x 0.4233 mm/sec
mm/sec x 2.362 = ipm
in/sec x 0.0254 = m/sec
ft/sec x 0.3048 = m/sec
ft/hr x 0.00008466 m/sec
ft/min x 0.00508 = m/sec
km/hr x 0.027777 = m/sec
mph x 1.609 = km/h
cm/sec x 1.9685 = ft/min
cm/sec x 0.32808 = ft/sec
m/sec x 196.85 = ft/min



Metric and Impact Strength.

Metric = Joules = J
1 ft/lb = 1.355818 J
ft/lb x 0.13825728 = kg/m



Metric and Volume.

cu/in x 16.387 = cu/cm
cu/in x 0.00057870 = cuft
cu/in x 0.000016387 = cu/m
cuft x 0.02831 = cu/m
cu/in x 16390.0 = cu/m
cu/cm x 0.000035315 = cuft
cu/cm x 0.061024 = cu/inch
cu/cm x 0.00026417 = gal US
cu/m x 35,315 = cuft
cu/m x 0.00061`024 = cu/inch
liquid gallon to cu/m x 0.003785



Weld Current Density Electrode
Area Square inch Divide by Weld Amp


Weld current density metric = amp per square
millimeter = A/mm2
WIRE 0.030 area = 0.00071 in/sq
WIRE 0.8 mm area = 0.00458 cm/sq
WIRE 0.030 area = 0.00071 in/sq
WIRE 0.035 area = 0.00096 in/sq
WIRE 1mm area = 0.006193 cm/sq
WIRE 0.045 area = 0.00160 in/sq
WIRE 1.2mm area = 0.1032 cm/sq
WIRE 0.062 area = 0.00307 in/sq
WIRE 1.6mm area = 0.0198 cm/sq







Metric and Length.

1 meter = 3.281 ft
1mm = 0.03937 inch
1inch x 25.4mm
mm x 0.03937 = inch
1 meter x 39.370 inch
ft x 304.8 = mm
mm x 0.003281 = ft
ft x 0.3048 = meter
yard x 0.9144 = meter



Metric and Weight.

 

oz x 0.02834 = kg
lb x 0.4535 = kg
Short ton 2000 lb x 907 = kg
Long ton 2240 lb x 1016 = kg
Tensile strength x 1000 = ksi
Metric Megapascal MPa
I MPa = 145.03 psi
kPa = 0.14503 psi
psi = 0.00689 MPa
mpa x 0.145 = ksi.



Metric and Pressure (psi).

Metric Kilopascal kPa.
psi x 6894.575 = Pa
kPa x 0.1451 = psi
psi x 0.068948 = bar
psi x 6894.8 = newtons/sqm
1 psi = 0.0068 MPa
1 bar x 100000 = Pa
ksi x 6.894 = MPa
Pa x 0.000145 = psi
lb/sqft x 4.788 = Pa
N/sqmm x 1000000 = Pa
Pa x 0.000145 = psi
Pa x 0.02089 = psi.
Pa x 0.02068 = lb/sqft
Pa x 0.000001 N/sqmm
bar = 14.5 psi
ksi x 6.894757 = MPa
psi x 0.006894 = MPa



Get those weld costs down and you will be able to purchase that vacation Penthouse for your wiife.

 

 








Visit all the MIG and flux cored Best Weld Practices
and Weld Process Control Programs at this Site.

E-Mail Ed. ecraig@weldreality.com.

For phone weld resolutions call Ed at 828 337 2695.

Visit Ed's Robot and Manual Process Control Training resources.