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HY and SAE, AISI Steels

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TIP TIG Welding is always better quality than TIG and 100 to 500% faster with superior quality than TIG - MIG - FCAW.

 
 
   






High Yield (HY) HIGH STRENGTH STEELS.
AISI Specifications - (CSA SAE) STEELS CHARTS

ALL WELDS SHOULD FIRST BE PRE-QUALIFIED BEFORE
THE WELD PROCEDURES ARE APPROVED.




HPS. High Performance "Weathering Steels".

SteelsDescriptionChemistry
weld data
HPS 70W



High performance steel used for bridges. (W) is weathering steel paint not req.

 

 

For weld information google Lincoln Electric or ESAB and in the product key words put in weathering steels to pick your process and consumables.



High-Yield-strength steels. (HY-steels.)

Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
DescriptionPreheat Post heat Chemistry
weld data
HY8080 -100
551-689
   

carb 0.12 0.18
Mn 0.1-0.4
Si 0.15-0.35
Ni 2 -.3.25
Cr 1-1.8
Mo 0.2/0.6
Ti 0.02
V 0.03
P 0.025



For
HY-80-90

E11018-M
E100S-1
E80S-D2
E90T1-K2

HY100100 - 120
689 - 827
    carb 0.12 0.2
Mn 0.1-0.4
Si 0.15-0.35
Ni 2.25/3.5
Cr 1-1.8
Mo 0.2/0.6
Ti 0.02
V 0.03
P 0.025
S 0.025
 



E11018-M
E120S-1
E110T1-K3

HY130    Preheat and interpass
<16mm 75-150F
16 to 22mm
125-200f>22mm
200-275f

 

E14018
E120S-1






SMAW and GMAW Mechanical Strength

E6010 Minimum Yield 50,000 psi Minimum Tensile 62,000 psi.
E6011 Minimum Yield 50,000 psi Minimum Tensile 62,000 psi.
E7010 Minimum Yield 60,000 psi Minimum Tensile 72,000 psi.
E7018 Minimum Yield 60,000 psi Minimum Tensile 72,000 psi.

MIG E70S-3-6 Minimum Yield 60,000 psi Minimum Tensile 72,000 psi.

 


Mechanical Strength of Gas Shielded Flux Cored Electrodes from the
ANSI / AWS A5.29. 1198 Specification
Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

 

AWS ClassificationTensile 
ksi
Tensile MPaYield 
ksi
Yield
Mpa
E6XTX-X-XM60 - 80410 - 55050340
E7XTX-X-XM70 - 90480 - 62058400
E8XTX-X-XM80 - 100550 - 69068470
E9XTX-X-XM90 - 110620 - 76078540
E10XTX-K9-K9MSEE SPEC 88610
(M) means an argon mix req,  75 to 80 argon balance CO2All DCEP E71T-1
Second number
1 = all position
E70T-1
Second number
0 = flat and horizontal
 




Brittleness? The ease at which the weld or metal will break or crack without appreciable deformation. When a metal gets harder it becomes more brittle. Preheat, inter-pass temp controls and post heat all are designed to reduce the potential for brittleness.




Weld Logic: Many manufactures of parts and equipment containing ASTM steels do not use the recommended pre or post-heat treatments.

The requirements for weld heat treatment is greatly influenced by many factors, the application, the governing specifications or codes, the plate condition, plate thickness, the weld consumables the weld procedures, the weld size and amount of welds required.

In many cases the manufacturer that uses the high strength ASTM steels will find that its not necessary for the weld to match the mechanical properties of the steel, and will therefore typically will utilize low hydrogen, higher ductile electrodes like SMAW E7018 / MIG E70S-3-6 / FCAW E71T-1.

When using the low hydrogen electrodes, the pre and post heat treatment recommendations are frequently eliminated especially on mulltipass welds, however from a weld quality perspective always ensure that the weld area is dry, the base metal is over 60F, and that rust and mill scale is removed from the weld area. Also even when heat treatment is not used, it's beneficial to not allow the multi-pass inter-pass weld temperatures to exceed 300F



Welding alloy steels often may require unique weld or heat treat considerations. Compare the low alloy steels chemistry and mechanicals with a standard A36 steel. Remember this site is only a guide, weld responsibility starts with "you" and the development of a PQR.

 

The "yield strength". The stress that can be applied to a base metal or weld without "permanent deformation" of the metal.

The "tensile strength". The ultimate tensile strength, the maximum tensile strength that the metal or weld can with stand before "failure occurs".





Metric Conversion 1000 psi = ksi x 6.894 = MPa




AISI SAE DATA AS A GUIDE FOR WELDING ONLY. ALL WELDS REQUIRE PRE-QUALIFICATION. NOMINAL ALLOY CONTENT MAY BE PROVIDED, (NOT VERIFIED).

 

AISI steels. When selecting electrodes take note of;
[a] the carbon content and the primary alloys.
[b] Over 0.03 carbon ensure low hydrogen electrodes.
[c] Over 0.35% carbon give SPECIAL consideration to pre-heat / inter-pass temp control and post heat.


THE FOLLOWING IS A RANDOM SELECTION OF AISI STEELS. THE DATA PROVIDED IS TO ASSIST WITH YOUR WELDING DECISIONS. TAKE NOTE OF THE PRIMARY ALLOYS THE CARBON CONTENT AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PRE AND POST HEAT RECOMMENDATIONS.


Weld Procedures intended for weld repairs on AISI 1040 - 1045 - 1050, forged steel components.
The intention of these weld repairs is to repair cracks, surface scratches or indentations. With the low hydrogen SMAW (stick) weld process the following recommendations apply. If cracks occur clean area with grinding or a wire wheel. Drill two 1/8 (3mm) holes within 1/16 (1.6mm) of the weld crack start / stop. Pre-heat and inter pass temp control is critical to slow down the weld cooling rate to reduce the hardening effect in the welds and heat affected zone. For these high carbon steels, a minimum preheat and inter-pass temperature of 600 to 700F is required. Provide this high preheat with a "propane or natural gas " torch, do not use acetylene as its conentrated and localized. Provide the preheat on the general area surrounding the weld repair. Use a temp stick to measure the preheat. Measure the temp at least 3 to 4 inches from either side of the weld.

 

AISI 1040 - 1045 - 1050. SMAW Electrode Guide Lines:

Use an E7018 low hydrogen electrode. Polarity DC Reverse Polarity (electrode positive) or AC. If cracking occurs with the E7018 consider an E312 stainless wire, or the use of MIG short circuit. Only use SMAW electrodes if they are new and in a sealed sealed container. Use a small electrode diameter to minimize the required weld current and heat input. 1/8 or 5/32. No arc strikes are allowed on the part surface, use a scrap strike plate to establish an arc. Once electrode is warm its easier to start on shaft. Use stringer, small beads, no weld weaves. At weld completion gently peen weld bead surface with pointed end of slag hammer to assist in stress reduction. Maintain preheat during weld. At weld completion wrap insulated blanket around weld to allow slow controlled cool without drafts to shaft.

ELECTRODE E7018 DCRP 1/8 130 - 140 AMPS, first choice.
ELECTRODE E7018 DCRP 5/32 140 - 160 AMPS second choice.


If the weld draws lubricant from the shaft and creates a porous weld, grind out weld, preheat and weld again. After the weld is complete, cooled and ground, test weld surface area with dye pen.

MIG Alternative procedures.If crack issues occur with SMAW on the high carbon steels, consider MIG short circuit which provides lower weld energy. For the short circuit welds, use an E70S-3 or E70S-6 wire, size 0.035. Use argon with - 15 to 25%% CO2. Set the 0.035 short circuit wire feed at 280 ipm, around 11 0'clock. You can measure the wire ipm by the wire length attained for 10 sec. Set the short circuit weld voltage at 17 to 18 volts, and achieve crisp, consistent crisp crackle. Use stinger beads and use the preheat and other applicable weld data from SMAW procedure.

 

AISI SPECIFICATIONS

AISI - SAE 10XX to 4340
Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
DescriptionPreheat Post heat UNS/InternationalChemistry Range
Weld Electrodes
AISI/SAE
10XX

 
1005 -1030
45-50

1040
50-60

1050
53- 62

 

1005-1030
60- 80

1040
75-95

1050
92-105
 Plain Carbon Steels

1005 -1023
>50 mm 150F

Post heat desirable 1026/1030
1100F

1030preheat
>13mm 150F.

1035 preheat
<25mm 100F.>25mm 250F post heat desirable 1100F

1040-42-43 preheat
<12mm 200F <25mm 350F>25mm 450F

1045 preheat <13mm 300F >13mm 500F

1040 TO 1049
post heat desirable 1100/1250F

1050 preheat
<12mm 200F <25mm 350F>25mm 450F


AISI 1010.
Carbon 0.08/0.13
Mn 0.3 - 0.6

UNS G10100
German Din 1.1121
Japan S10-12C-S9CK
France XC


AISI 1015
Carbon 0.12/0.18
Mn 0.3 - 0.6

UNS G10150
German 1.1141
Japan SI5CP17CK
Swed 1370
France XC-15-18

AISI 1020
Carbon 0.17/0.23
Mn 0.3 - 0.6

UK 040A2

UNS G10200
German 1.0402
Swed 1450
France CC20

AISI 1030
Carbon 0.27/0.34
Mn 0.6 - 0.9

UNS G10350
German din 1.0501
UK 060A35-080A32
France CC35


AISI 1040
Carbon
0.36/0.44
Mn 0.6/0.9

UNS G10400
German Din 1.1186
Japan S40C
UK 080 A 40 2S93

AISI 1045
Carbon 0.42/0.50
Mn 0.6/0.9

UNS G10450
France XC 42-45
Germany DIN 1.1191
Japan S45-48c
sweden 1672

AISI 1050
Carbon 0.47/0.55
Mn 0.6/0.9
UNS G10500
German DIN 1.1210
Japan S 53 C-S 55C




For Joining the 10XX grades to 1035
E7016-18
E70S-X
E7XT-1


For grades > 1037 to 1050 use E70XX, 7018 or E8018

AISI/SAE
1137

 


AISI/SAE
1140

 

 

AISI
1144









50 - 55

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84 - 91

 

 

 

 

 preheat <13 mm 100F <25 mm 150F > 25mm 250F

 

preheat <13mm 200F <25mm 300F >25mm 350f

 

 UNS G11370

 

 

UNS G 11400
SWE 1957
France 35 mf 4
Germany 1.0726

 




C. 0.04 -0.048
Mn. 1.35 -1.65
S. 0.24- 0.33.

Note high sulfur most welds will crack

carb 0.32-0.39
Mn 1.35/1.65
E7016-18
E70S-X
E7XT-1

E8016-18


carb 0.37-0.44
Mn 0.7-1
E7016-18
E70S-X
E7XT-1
E8016-18


E70S-X
E7XT-1

Use 312 if welded to stainless

AISI/SAE
1330
  

 Manganese
steel

 

 preheat <13mm 250F >13mm 350 F  UNS G13300
Germany DIN 1.1165
Japan SMn1h SCMN2
carb 0.27-0.33
Mn 1.6 -1.9
Si 0.15 -0.35
E7016-18
E70S-X
E7XT-1
E8016-18



AISI/SAE
1340
 63 - 82  100-121 Manganese
steels
 preheat
<25mm 400
>25 mm 550

if >25mm hold at 550F for an hour per inch after welding

 UNS G13400

Germany Din 15069

 carb 0.38-0.43
Mn 1.6/1.9
Si 0.15/0.3
E10016-D2
E80S-D2
E100T5-D2
AISI/SAE
15XX
     carb 0.1-0.52
Mn 0.8/1.65
AISI/SAE
23XX
     Ni 3.5
AISI/SAE
25XX

    Ni 5
AISI/SAE
31XX

    Ni 1.25
Cr 0.65/0.8
AISI/SAE
32XX
     Ni 1.75
Cr 1.07
AISI/SAE
33XX
     Ni 3.5
Cr 1.5-1.57
AISI/SAE
34XX
     Ni 3
Cr 0.77
AISI/SAE
4023
Molybdenum  note concern for filler metal if quenched and tempered after weld  Preheat >13 mm 150f
post heat desirable 1100F
UNS G40230 carb 0.2/0.25
Si 0.15/0.3
Mn0.7/0.9
Mo0.2/0.3
E7018-A1
E70S-X
E7XT-5
E8016-18

AISI/SAE
4130
Chrome/moly 51-65

80 -100

from as rolled normalized or annealed only

 Preheat <13mm 300F
<25 mm 400F

>25mm 450F
UNS G41300
UK CDS 110
Germany DIN 17218
Japan SCM/2
Swe 2225
Carb 0.27/0.34
Mn 0.35/0.6
Cr 0.8/1.15
Mo /0.25.
SI 0.15-0.35

As welded
E8018-B2
E9018B2

QUENCHED AND TEMP
Flux cored 4130 basic

AISI/SAE
43XX

4340

Ni/Cr/Mo 4340
67-125
4340
107-187
 4340
Ger Din 1.6562
JP 40NiCrMo7
UK8S 139

WELD
E120-M
Preheat 300 C
post heat treat necessary. Watch for HAZ and weld cracks from restrained or undersize welds
Carb 0.17/0.44
Ni 1.65/2
Cr 0.4/0.9
Mo 0.2/0.3.

Gas shielded flux cored 4340 available from Postle industries Cleveland



Ultrahigh-Strength Steels
are commercial structural steels capable of a minimum yield strength of 1,380 MPa (200 ksi).Three types of these steels are;

[1] Medium carbon, low alloy,
[2] medium alloy, air hardening,
[3] Hgh alloy, hardenable steels.

The common medium carbon low-alloy steels, such as 4130, 4140, 4340, and 8640, generally are supplied by the mill in either the normalized and tempered or annealed condition and are readily forged. Alloy 4130 is a water-hardening alloy steel of low to intermediate hardenability. Because 4130 steel has low hardenability, section thickness must be considered when heat treating to high hardness or strength.

E-Mail Feb 2007.

Hi Ed. Would you offer some advice on welding 4130 plate and tubing using GMAW? I have looked in the books that we have of yours and have searched the discussion group and didn’t find similar enough situations for reference. The weldment consists of 4130 sheet/plate and pipe that is heat treated to 125-145 KSI ultimate tensile strength prior to welding. The sheet/plates range from .125”-.625” thick and the tubes range from .188”-.250” wall thickness. I will be using a 120 KSI UTS filler metal and the weldment will be post weld stress relieved. Do you have any suggestions on the parameters and techniques that should be applied? Thanks, Steve


From Mike. Why not use a 4130 filler metal. I have been involved with welding a structural component for the last four years. We have had excellent results. The base metal is supplied in the annealed condition. The component is pre-heated to 400F and then subjected to post weld hest treatment. In a few instances, due to engineering changes after the pwht, some minor welds were made and a local pwht was applied.

From Ed. Steve welding with or without heat treatment, its logical to use low end parameters, use stringers, avoid weaves and maintain an interpass temp of 300F max.


Manganese Steel
is sometimes called "austenitic manganese steel" because of it's metallurgical structure. This steel is also called Hadfield manganese steel after its inventor. Manganese steel is an extremely tough, nonmagnetic alloy with extremely high tensile strength and a high percentage of ductility This steel has excellent wear resistance and a high resistance to impact.

Note: Manganese steel is almost impossible to machine.

Manganese steel is widely used as castings and also available as rolled shapes. Manganese steel is often used for impact wear resistance applications such as railroad components, steel mill parts and parts on equipment in quarries.

The composition of austenitic manganese is from 12-14% manganese and 1-1.4% carbon. The composition of cast manganese steel would be 12% manganese and 1.2% carbon. Nickel is oftentimes added to the composition of the rolled manganese steel.

To attain the material toughness of the manganese steel, a special heat treatment of 1850°F (1008°C) followed by quenching in water is required. To have minimal impact on the steels properties, special attention is required for welding or heating. Manganese steel can be welded to itself or to carbon and alloy steels. Clad weld deposits can be made on manganese steels.

Manganese steel can be cut with oxy-fuel cutting, keep the base metal as cool as possible. If the mass of the part to be cut is large its doubtful the heat build will cause embrittlement. If the parts to ber cut are thin, it's recommended the parts be cooled or partially submerged in water during the flame cutting operation. For removal of defects or cracks in the manganese part, the air gouging process can be used. While doing repairs, again the base metal must be kept cool. Grinding should be used to smooth up the surfaces for welds.

MANGANESE ELECTRODE 1. There are two types of manganese steel electrodes available. Both are similar in analysis to the base metal but with the addition of elements which maintain the toughness of the weld deposit without quenching. The EFeMn-A electrode is known as the nickel manganese electrode and contains from 3-5% nickel in addition to the 12-14% manganese. The carbon is lower than normal manganese ranging from 0.50 to 0.90%. The weld deposits of this electrode on large manganese castings will result in a tough deposit due to the rapid cooling of the weld metal. The manganese nickel steel is more often used as a buildup deposit to maintain the characteristics of manganese steel when surfacing is required.

MANGANESE ELECTRODE 2. The other electrode used is a molybdenum-manganese steel type EFeMn-B. This electrode contains 0.6-1.4% molybdenum instead of the nickel. This electrode is less often used for repair welding of manganese steel or for joining manganese steel itself or to carbon steel.

MANGANESE ELECTRODE 3. Stainless steel electrodes can also be used for welding manganese steels and for welding them to carbon and low-alloy steels. The 18-8 chrome-nickel types are popular; however, in some cases when welding to alloy steels the 29-9 nickel is sometimes used. These electrodes are considerably more expensive than the manganese steel electrode and for this reason are not popular.



STRESS RELIEVING:

STRESS RELIEF - CONTROLLED HEATING & COOLING TO REDUCE STRESSES.
STRESS RELIEF MACHINED PARTS FOR DIMENSIONAL STABILITY.

STRESS RELIEF SLOW HEATING AND COOLING REQUIRED

CONFIRM WITH CODE SPECIFICAIONS FOR STRESS RELIEF REQUIREMENTS.

TYPICAL STRESS RELIEF SOAK TIME
ONE HOUR PER INCH OF THICKNESS

SR HEAT & COOL RATE PER HOUR 400oF 204oC DIVIDE THICKER PART
PARTS OF DIFFERENT THICKNESSES
SR MAX TEMP DIFFERENCE 75oF 24oC
STRESS RELIEF CARBON STEELS 1100oF 593oC
TO 1250oF 677oC
STRESS RELIEF CARBON 0.5% Mo
1100oF 593oC TO 1250oF 677oC
SR 1% CHROME 0.5% Mo
1150oF 621oC TO 1325oF 718oC
SR 1.25 % CHROME 0.5% Mo
1150oF 621oC TO 1325oF 718oC
SR 2% CHROME 0.5% Mo
1150oF 621oC TO 1325oF 718oC
SR 2.25 % CHROME 1% Mo
1200oF 649oC TO 1375oF 746oC
SR 5% CHROME 0.5% Mo
1200oF 649oC TO 1375oF 746oC
SR 7% CHROME 0.5% Mo
1300oF 704oC TO 1400oF 760oC
SR 9% CHROME 1% Mo
1300oF 704oC TO 1400oF 760oC
SR 12% CHROME 410 STEEL
1550oF 843oC TO 1600oF 871oC
SR 16% CHROME 430 STEEL
1400oF 760oC TO 1500oF 815oC
SR 9% NICKEL
1025oF 552oC TO 1085oF 585oC
FOR 300 SERIES STAINLESS SR WILL
RESULT IN CARBIDE PRECIPITATION
WITH LOW CARBON 300 SERIES
MAX SR 1050oF 566oC
SR 400 SERIES CLAD STAINLESS
1100oF 593oC TO 1350oF 732oC
SR CLAD MONEL INCONEL Cu NICKEL
1150oF 621oC TO 1200oF 649oC
STRESS RELIEF MAGNESIUM AZ31B 0
500oF 260oC 15 MIN
STRESS RELIEF MAGNESIUM AZ31B
H24 300oF 149oC 60 MIN

HK31A H24 550oF 288oC 30 MIN

HM21A T8-T81 700oF 371oC 30 MIN

MAGNESIUM WITH MORE THAN 1.5%
ALUMINUM STRESS RELIEF
MAGNESIUM CAST ALLOYS AM100A
500oF 260oC 60 MIN
AZ-63A 81A 91C & 92A
500oF 260oC 60 MIN
 

 

Free Machining Steels.The term "free machining" can apply to many metals but is normally associated with steel and brass. Free machining is the property that makes machining easy because small cutting chips are formed. This characteristic is given to steel by sulfur and in some cases by lead. It is given to brass by lead.

Sulfur and lead are not considered alloying elements. In general, they are considered impurities in the steel. The specifications for steel show a maximum amount of sulfur as 0.040% with the actual sulfur content running lower, in the neighborhood of 0.030%. Lead is usually not mentioned in steel specifications since it is not expected and is considered a "tramp" element. Lead is sometimes purposely added to steel to give it free-machining properties.

Free-machining steels are usually specified for parts that require a considerable amount of machine tool work. The addition of the sulfur makes the steel easier to turn, drill, mill, etc., even though the hardness is the same as a steel of the same composition without the sulfur. The sulfur content of free-machining steels will range from 0.07-0.12% as high as 0.24-0.33%. The amount of sulfur is specified in the AISI or other specifications for carbon steels. Sulfur is not added to any of the alloy steels. Leaded grades comparable to 12L14 and 11L18 are available.

Unless the correct welding procedure is used, the weld deposits on free-machining steel will always be porous and will not provide properties normally expected of a steel of the analysis but without the sulfur or lead.

The basis for establishing a welding procedure for free-machining steels is the same as that required for carbon steels of the same analysis. These steels usually run from 0.010% carbon to as high as 1.0% carbon. They may also contain manganese ranging from 0.30% to as high as 1.65%. Therefore, the procedure is based on these elements. If the steels are free-machining and contain a high percentage of sulfur the only change in procedure is to change to a low-hydrogen type weld deposit.

In the case of shielded metal arc welding this means the use of low-hydrogen type electrode such as EXXX8 classification. In the case of gas metal arc welding or flux-cored arc welding the same type of filler metal is specified as is normally used since these are no-hydrogen welding processes.

Submerged arc welding would not normally be used on free-machining steels. Gas tungsten arc welding is not normally used since free-machining steels are used in thicker sections which are not usually welded with the GTAW process.


For the worlds best MIG and flux cored weld
process control training resources vist here.




    Fatigue.The ability of a metal or weld to withstand repeated loads. Fatigue failures occur at stress levels less than the metal or weld yield strength. Some things that can influence fatigue failure:

    Excess weld profiles.
    Welds which cause undercut.
    FCAW or SMAW slag inclusions.
    Lack of weld penetration.
    Excess weld heat, typically from multi-pass welds without inter-pass temp controls.
    Items to a part that adds restraint while welding.
    Items added to a part that can concentrate stresses in a specific location.
    Incorrect selection of filler metal, weld too weak or weld too strong.|



AISI / SAE 44XX TO 98XX STEELS.
Steels Yield
 ksi
 MPa
Tensile
 ksi
MPa
DescriptionPreheat Post heat UNSChemistry
weld data
AISI/SAE
44XX
   Moly Steel  4419 preheat >13mm 100F .>25mm 200F
4419/4422/4427
post heat required FOR 4419/4422/4427
at 1200-1350F
 

SAE 4419
carb 0.18-0.23
Mn 0.45-0.65
Si 0.15-0.3
Mo0.45 - 0.6

AISI/SAE
46XX
 4620
53-55
 4620
75-85
Ni-Moly 

 4615 - 4617- 4620 preheat >13mm 200F >25 mm 250 F

post heat desirable 1100-1250F

 

4615
carb 0.12-0.18
Mn 0.4/0.65
Si 0.3
Ni 1.65/2
Mo 0.2/0.3

weld 4620
E8018-C1
E80S-D2
E81T1-Ni2

AISI/SAE
47XX
   Ni - Cr - Mo   

carb 0.16-0.22
Ni 0.9-1.2
Cr0.35-0.55
Mo 0.15/0.4

AISI/SAE
48XX
  Ni- Mo    carb 0.13-0.23
Ni 3.25-3.75
Mo 0.2 /0.3
AISI/SAE
50XX
  Carb/Chrome  AISI 5046 preheat <13mm 300 F <25MM 350F >25mm 400F  50xx range
carb 0.12-0.48
Mn 0.3/1
Si 0.15-0.35
Cr 0.2-0.6
AISI/SAE
51XX
  Carb/Chrome
HIGHER CHROME THAN 50XX 
 AISI 5120
E8016-B2
E80T1-B2

>13mm 250F post heat desirable 1100 to 1250F
 51xx range
carb 0.13-0.53
Mn 0.6/0.9
Si 0.15-0.35
Cr 0.7-1.15
AISI/SAE
61XX

  Cr / V   carb 0.16-0.54
Mn 0.5/0.9
Cr 0.5-1.15
V 0.1-0.15
AISI/SAE
81XX

 Ni / Cr / Mo    carb 0.13-0.18
Ni 0.2/0.4
Mo.0.08-0.15
Cr 0.3-0.5
AISI/SAE
86XX
   Ni Cr Mo   carb 0.12 /
0.48
Ni 0.4/0.7
Mo.0.15-0.25
Cr 0.35-0.6
AISI/SAE
87XX
  Ni Cr Mo    carb 0.18-0.46
Ni 0.4/0.7
Mo.0.2-0.3
Cr 0.35-0.6
AISI/SAE
88XX
  Ni Cr Mo   carb 0.2-0.25
Ni 0.4/0.7
Mo.0.3-0.4
Cr 0.4-0.6
AISI/SAE
93XX
   Ni Cr Mo   Ni 3.25
Cr 1.2
Mo 0.12
AISI/SAE
94XX
  Ni Cr Mo   Ni 0.45
Cr 0.4
Mo 0.12

AISI/SAE
97XX

AISI/SAE
98 XX

  Ni Cr Mo   Ni 0.55
Cr 0.2
Mo 0.2

Ni 1
Cr 0.8
Mo 0.25

 


AISI SAE HIGH STRENGTH SHEET STEEL DESIGNATIONS:

AISI 035SF. First three digits = minimum yield 35 ksi (241 MPa)
035SF First letter after numbers denotes chemistry composition

(S) = structural quality C-Mn-p-n,
(X) = low alloy Cb-Ti-V-Si-Zr
(W) = weathering steels Si-P-Cu-Ni-Cr
(D) = Dual phase Matensite transformation

AISI 035SF Last letter denotes deoxidation practice. (F) Deoxidation Killed Steel Inclusion control. (K) Deoxidation killed steel. (O) Deoxidation is none killed. To find heat treat, chemistry and weld data cross reference these steels with the following ASTM Steels. Go back to the steels program home page to find your ASTM steel.


AISI 035SK to AISI 080XF
AISI SteelsCross Reference to ASTM steel Designations
  
AISI
035SK
Cross Ref
ASTM A414/A446
AISI
035SO
Cross Ref
ASTM A414/A446
A570 / A611
AISI 040SOCross Ref
ASTM A570 Gr 40
A446 A611
AISI
040SK
Cross Ref
ASTM A414/A570/A611
AISI
045SK
Cross Ref
ASTM A579
AISI
045SO
Cross Ref
ASTM A570 Gr 45
AISI
045XK
Cross Ref
ASTM A607
AISI
045X0
Cross Ref
ASTM A607 Gr45 CL 1  
AISI
045WK
Cross Ref
ASTM A606
AISI
050SK
Cross Ref
ASTM A570 
AISI
050S0
Cross Ref
ASTM A446/570 GR 50
AISI
050XF
Cross Ref
ASTM A715
 AISI
 050XK
Cross Ref
ASTM A606/A607/
A715 Gr 50
A816 GR 50 Type 2
 AISI
 050X0
Cross Ref
ASTM A607 Gr 50-1
 AISI
 050WF
Cross Ref
ASTM A606 
 AISI
 050WK
Cross Ref
ASTM A606 
AISI
055XK  

Cross Ref
ASTM A607

AISI
055X0
Cross Ref
ASTM S607 Gr 55 CL 1-2
AISI
060XF
Cross Ref
ASTM A715
AISI
060XK
Cross Ref
ASTM A607/A715-60
A816-60
AISI
060X0
Cross Ref
ASTM A607 Gr 60-1-2
A816M Gr 60 type 1
AISI
065XK
Cross Ref
ASTM A607
AISI
065X0
Cross Ref
ASTM A607 Gr 65 CL2
AISI
070XF
Cross Ref
ASTM A715
AISI
070XK
Cross Ref
ASTM A607 / A715 Gr 70
AISI
080S0
Cross Ref
ASTM A446/A611 Gr E
AISI
080XF
Cross Ref
ASTM A715

 



Silicon Steels or electrical steels, are steels that contain from 0.5% to almost 5% silicon but with low carbon and low sulfur and phosphorous. These steels are provided as sheet or strip and used frequently in punched or stamped applications such as laminations for electrical machinery.The silicon steels are designed to have lower hysteresis and eddy current losses than plain steel when used in magnetic circuits.

Silicon steel stampings are used in the laminations of electric motor armatures, rotors, and generators. They are widely used in transformers for the electrical power industry and for transformers, chokes, and other components in the electronics industry.

For the laminations welds, the welds are made on the edge of each sheet to hold the stack together. Almost all of the arc welding processes are used, MIG, submerged arc, shielded metal arc, gas metal arc, gas tungsten arc and plasma arc welding. When the consumable electrode processes are used the stampings are usually indented to allow for deposition of filler metal. For gas tungsten arc and plasma arc the filler metals are frequently not used and the edges are simply fused. The size of the weld bead should be kept at minimum so that eddy currents are not conducted between laminations in the electrical stack.

One precaution that should be taken in welding silicon steel laminations is to make sure that the laminations are tightly pressed together and that all of the oil used for protection and used in manufacturing is at a minimum. Oil can cause porosity in the welds which might be detrimental to the lamination assembly.

 

Hardness?
The resistance of the metal or the weld to penetration.
Hardness is related to the strength of the metal. A good way to test a weld after the weld and heat treatment are complete, is to test the hardness of weld and the base metal surrounding the weld.

Ductility?
The amount that a metal or weld will deform without breaking.
Measured on welds by the % of elongation in a 2 inch 51 mm test piece. An E71T-1 flux cored electrode should result in a minimum of 20% elongation. An E70S--6 MIG weld should produce approx 22%.

Toughness?
The ability of the metal or weld sample at a predetermined temperature to withstand a shock.
The test for toughness measures the impact of a pendulum on a notched specimen. You may see that the required impact properties for the metal or weld are 20ft-lbf @ -20 F (27 j @ -29C)

If you are welding a carbon steel and you don't know what the composition is or what the weld consumable should be, try the following:

  • If the metal is thicker than 6 mm preheat to 150F.
  • Use either an E7018 stick electrode, an 0.035 or 0.045 E70S-6 MIG wire. For your all position welds an E71T-1 electrode wire.
  • For MIG welding use an argon 10 to 15% CO2 mix.
  • For flux cored use a mix with 20 to 25% CO2.
  • Ensure with multi-pass welds you use inter-pass temp control. Ensure the inter-pass temp weld temperature does not exceed 200F.
  • If possible do destructive test of a weld sample.
  • If possible have the hardness and grain size checked after welding.





Abrasion-Resisting Steel (AR).

Typically AR steel is not used for structural applications. AR steel is a high carbon steel typically used for wear resisiting components such as material-moving equipment and dump truck liners and for components where severe abrasion and hard materials are used. Most AR steels have a 0.80-0.90% carbon range; however there are low carbon AR steels with multiple alloying elements.

The AR steels are very strong with a hardness of approx. 40 HRc or 375 BHN. AR plates are typically welded to the structures they are designed to protect and once worn removed by oxy / fuel cutting or carbon arc.

When welding AR steels, the low-hydrogen weld processes are required. A preheat of 400°F is used to avoid underbead cracking of the base metal or cracking inthe weld. During cold weather ensure the AR steels have a minimum temp 100°F (38°C) temperature prior to welding. On some applications, the 400F pre-heat can be avoided by using a "preheat weld bead" on the carbon steel structure close to the AR steel and then filling in between the pre-heat bead and the abrasion-resisting steel with a second bead in the groove provided. The first bead on the regular carbon steel should locally preheat the AR steel and the second bead is made to join the regular steel to the AR steel. Intermittent welds are usually made since full-length welds are usually not required. Avoid deep weld fusion into the AR steel to minimize carbon pickup in the weld which can increase the crack potential.

When welding AR steels, you can use SMAW the E-XXX8 electrodes, MIG or flux cored. When using MIG spray, use low penetrating shielding gases such as argon - 10% CO2 or argon - 2% oxygen. Use the lowest current with gas shielded flux cored or use straight polarity self shielded flux cored which minimizes deep weld penetration.

 

Dual - Ten Stl manufactured by US Steel

 

Dual TEN are dual phase steels with a mix of ferrite matrix and martensite islands decorating grain boundaries with possible addition of bainite. These steels contain approx. 5 - 15% martensite. These steels therefore offer that unique combination of Ferrite = soft phase (ductility) and martensite = hard phase offering high strength.

Grades Dual Ten 590 / 600

Grades Dual Ten 780 / 800

Dual Ten Strength UTS 72 - 175 ksi 500 - 1200 Mpa

Dual Ten high rate of work hardening

Dual Ten offer weigh reduction even in comparison to high strength steels, this means the auto industry will embrace them and you will be welding parts less than 1.2 mm thick For more information on the unique mechanical properties of this steel vist the US Steel site.

The only information on welding i found at US STEEL on welding, is that these steels meet auto application weld needs. From my perspectice, Its logical with these steels to minimize weld heat input, so short circuit or high weld speeds with the open arc modes of weld transfer would be logical.. No pre-heat on gage and definately look to interpass temp controls, at a guess i would state 200F.

 



Use Ed's process control resources to provide
optimum MIG - FCAW PQR's and weld procedures.


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